Showing posts with label AUSTRALIA. Show all posts
Showing posts with label AUSTRALIA. Show all posts

Friday, April 20, 2012

Watarrka National Park Australia Trip

Watarrka National Park, synonymous with Kings Canyon, includes the western end of the George Gill Range. This scenic landscape of rugged ranges, rockholes and moist gorges acts as a refuge for many plants and animals. This makes the Park an important conservation area and a major visitor attraction in Central Australia. The traditional custodians of this land, the Anangu, believe the Central Australian landscape was created at the beginning of time by their ancestors. Their descendants have been protecting these sacred lands for thousands of generations since.

1.  The Park is located southwest of Alice Springs and can be reached via a number of routes:

2. via Larapinta Drive through the West MacDonnell National Park. A Mereenie Loop pass
is required to travel this route and is available from the Alice Springs Tourist Information
Centre, Glen Helen Resort and Kings Canyon Resort.

3. via the Stuart Highway, Ernest Giles Road (4WD essential) and Luritja Road.

Watarrka National Park TripsThe Watarrka National Park is accessible all year round. The cooler months (April to September) are the most pleasant. Overnight camping in tents or campervans is not permitted in the National Park. Commercial motel and camping accommodation is the only option available for visitors wishing to stay overnight at Watarrka.

Before undertaking any of the following walks, consider your personal health, fitness and
available time. Visit the Safety Information Shelter and check the temperature gauge at the start of the Canyon walks.

The Kings Creek Walk 
(2.6 km, one hour return). The gentle slope of the track meanders up Kings Creek to a lookout point. This walk is suitable for families. Wheelchairs can access the first 700 metres.

The Kings Canyon Rim Walk(6 km loop, 3-4 hours). After an initial steep climb the walk offers spectacular views from the
Canyon rim. Along the way are the weathered, buttressed domes of the ‘Lost City’ and the sheltered ‘Garden of Eden’ with permanent waterholes and lush vegetation. This walk is suitable for fit, experienced walkers. For safety reasons, the track must be walked in a clockwise direction. This minimises traffic congestion, track erosion and vegetation degradation.

Kathleen Springs Walk 
(2.6 km, 1.5 hour return) leads to a delightful spring-fed waterhole, suitable for families and accessible to wheelchairs.

The Giles Track
 (22 km, 2 days) traverses the top of the range from Kathleen Springs to Kings Canyon with a halfway entrance/exit point at Reedy Creek/Lilla. Notify a reliable person of your intended walk plans and ensure they know to contact police if you do not return by the arranged date. Carry a satellite phone or personal locator beacon.

Western Macdonnell National Park and MacDonnell Ranges

Newhaven Station has many of the characteristics of the remote Great Sandy Desert and yet it is very accessible. The area is extensive, complex and intact. It is home to at least 15 nationally threatened species of animals and plants. It boasts ten vegetation communities and a wide array of landforms, none of which are well represented in existing reserves.

Whilst enjoying the Western Macdonnell National Park and Western MacDonnell Ranges, we will be bush camping at Redbank Gorge for three nights. Tents or swags are available - please advise the office of your choice. As this tour itinerary has consecutive nights of bush camping at Redbank Gorge, there will be glorious nights of relaxing camp fires and lots of starry nights guaranteed! It is considered a rigorous 4WD tour and therefore people that book on this tour need to be tolerant of remote outback conditions.

Alice Springs is an iconic Outback town, surrounded by a red desert the size of Europe and framed by the MacDonnell Ranges. Alice Springs played a critical role in the construction of Australia’s first overland telegraph line. Its history is populated by a colourful cast of characters that include gold-diggers, outback pioneers and Afghan cameleers. This is also the home of the Royal Flying Doctor Service the first aerial medical organisation of its type in the world.

To the east and west of Alice Springs are the MacDonnell Ranges. This japed and rocky spine stretches for hundreds of kilometres, harbouring gorges and permanent rock pools carved by prehistoric rivers. The Traditional owners of this area, The Arrernte people, believe Giant caterpillars called the Yeperenye became the MacDonnell Ranges – entering this world through one of the dramatic gaps in the escarpment.

The Larapinta Trail is a walking track that extends more than 220 kilometres along the West MacDonnell Ranges, crossing steep ranges and deep chasms. The Red Centre Way is a magnificent Outback drive that connects many of the Red Centre’s natural wonders. From the early 1900’s, fortune-seekers searched the Central Australia desert for rubies and gold. Natural riches of all kinds exist in this ancient landscape: you just have to know where to look.

Uluru–Kata Tjuta National Park Aboriginal Cultural Landscape

Uluru–Kata Tjuta National Park is part of an extensive Aboriginal cultural landscape that stretches across the Australian continent. The park represents the work of Anangu and nature during thousands of years. Its landscape has been managed using traditional Anangu methods governed by Tjukurpa, Anangu Law. Within Uluru–Kata Tjuta National Park is Uluru, arguably the most distinctive landscape symbol of Australia, nationally and internationally. It conveys a powerful sense of the very long time during which the landscape of the Australian continent has evolved. Far from the coastal cities, and with its rich red tones, for some it epitomises the isolation and starkness of Australia’s desert environment.

When coupled with the profound spiritual importance of many parts of Uluru to Anangu, these natural qualities have resulted in the use of Uluru in Australia and elsewhere as the symbolic embodiment of the Australian landscape. As a consequence, Uluru has become the focus of visitors’ attention in the Central Australian region, while other parks offer a complementary range of experiences.

The park is owned by the Uluru–Kata Tjuta Aboriginal Land Trust. It covers about 1,325 square kilometres and is 335 kilometres by air and about 470 kilometres by road to the south-west of Alice Springs. The Ayers Rock Resort at Yulara adjoins the park’s northern boundary. Both the park and the resort are surrounded by Aboriginal freehold land held by the Petermann and Katiti Land Trusts.

Uluru–Kata Tjuta National Park is a cultural landscape representing the combined works of Anangu and nature over millennia. The importance of Uluru–Kata Tjuta National Park’s cultural landscape is reinforced by the inscription of cultural and natural values for the park on the World Heritage List and also on the Australian Government’s Commonwealth and National Heritage Lists. The listed World Heritage values for the park are described in Appendix B to this plan, National Heritage values in Appendix C and Commonwealth Heritage values in Appendix D.

Cultural Values Aboriginal People of The Park
Anangu is the term that Pitjantjatjara and Yankunytjatjara Aboriginal people, from the Western Desert region of Australia, use to refer to themselves. Pitjantjatjara and Yankunytjatjara are the two principal dialects spoken in Uluru–Kata Tjuta National Park. Aboriginal people and their culture have always been associated with Uluru. According to Anangu, the landscape was created at the beginning of time by ancestral beings. Anangu are the direct descendants of these beings and they are responsible for the protection and appropriate management of these lands. The knowledge necessary to fulfil these responsibilities has been passed down from generation to generation through Tjukurpa, the Law.

There is strong and powerful Aboriginal Law in this Place. There are important songs and stories that we hear from our elders, and we must protect and support this important Law. There are sacred things here, and this sacred Law is very important. It was given to us by our grandfathers and grandmothers, our fathers and mothers, to hold onto in our heads and in our hearts.

Tjukurpa unites Anangu with each other and with the landscape. It embodies the principles of religion, philosophy and human behaviour that are to be observed in order to live harmoniously with one another and with the natural landscape. Humans and every aspect of the landscape are inextricably one. According to Tjukurpa, there was a time when ancestral beings, in the forms of humans, animals and plants, travelled widely across the land and performed remarkable feats of creation and destruction. The journeys of these beings are remembered and celebrated and the record of their activities exists today in the features of the land itself. For Anangu, this record provides an account, and the meaning, of the cosmos for the past and the present.

When Anangu speak of the many natural features within Uluru–Kata Tjuta National Park their interpretations and explanations are expressed in terms of the activities of particular Tjukurpa beings, rather than by reference to geological or other explanations. Primarily, Anangu have a spiritual interpretation of the park’s landscape. In traditional terms, therefore, they speak of the park’s spiritual meaning, not just of the shape its surface features take.

Tjukurpa prescribes the nature of the relationships between those responsible for the maintenance of Tjukurpa and the associated landscape, their obligations, and the obligations of those who visit that land. The central attributes of these relationships are integrity, respect, honesty, trust, sharing, learning, and working together as equals.

Friday, June 3, 2011

Southwest National Park Tasmania Amazing Landscape

Part of the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area, Southwest National Park is unlike any other in Australia. Over six hundred thousand hectares of inspiring, wild and remote countryside make this the largest national park in the state. This region has wild rivers and jagged mountain ranges, rolling buttongrass plains and silent green rainforest. High rainfall, ice and wind often lash this area, yet even in cloudy weather there are often unexpected views with light suitable for sightseeing and photography.

Southwest National Park encompasses some of the finest wilderness country in Australia and offers everything from scenic drives, quick picnics and brief strolls, to fishing and extended wilderness walks. Because of the enormous area covered by the park and the two different ways it can be accessed by road, details of both the northern and southern sections are included.

Southwest National Park

Getting There
The northern part of the park is accessed via Maydena - Allow 2.5 - 3 hours from Hobart to reach the northern boundary of the park. From Hobart head north on the A1 to Granton then take the A10 to New Norfolk. From New Norfolk take the B62 then the Gordon River Road B61 past Mt Field National Park to Maydena. Continue about 72 km to Teds Beach Campground then onto Strathgordon. It is a further 12 km to the Gordon Dam. Or at Frodsham Pass about 30 km from Maydena take the C607, a winding gravel road about 47 km (40 minutes), to Scotts Peak and the Huon and Edgar Campgrounds.

THE SOUTHERN SECTION: Southwest National Park

Park Entry fees apply for all areas south of Cockle Creek Bridge and self-registration facilities are available at the Cockle Creek site office. Passes can also be obtained from Hastings Caves Visitor Centre, Geeveston Forest and Heritage Centre and the Parks & Wildlife Shop, 24 Main Road Huonville (Mon - Fri, 9 - 4.30). Passes are available state-wide at Service Tasmania Shops.

Getting There
The southern part of the park is accessed via Cockle Creek, the south-eastern entrance to the park 148 km (2 hours) south of Hobart. Take the Southern Outlet (A6) to the Huon Highway (A6) following signs to Huonville. Pass through Huonville, Geeveston and Dover. About 15 km after Dover, take the C635 direction Hastings Caves. After 4 km take the gravel road (C636) through Lune River to Cockle Creek. Bushwalker transport is available in summer, contact Tassie Link on 1300 300 520 for details. Remember when driving you are sharing the road with wildlife.

An information booth at Cockle Creek will help you make the most of your visit. Water activities such as swimming, fishing and boating are popular near Cockle Creek, where the tranquil coves and sandy beaches of Recherche Bay, contrast with the rugged often snow-capped peaks of the distant mountains. You will need a Recreational Fishing Licence to obtain rock lobster, abalone or to use a gill net. These are available throughout the state at Service Tasmania Shops and also from the Department of Primary Industries, Water & Environment in Hobart. This area of the park is great for bird watching and picnics.

Southwest National Park

Walks - There are a variety of walks in this area ranging from short nature rambles to challenging treks into the Southwest wilderness. Always carry warm and water proof clothing.

Bronze Whale Sculpture - 10 minutes return. This easy walk starts at the very end of the road about 800m past Cockle Creek Bridge. This life size sculpture of a three-month-old southern right whale is a reminder that whales come to sheltered bays like this to calve over winter.

Fishers Point - 2 - 3 hours return. On this fascinating and easy walk discover whalebones, rock pools full of creatures and much more. The track begins at the whale sculpture and continues to Fisher Point Light and the remains of the old pilot station. Please do not remove any items you may find as they are protected by law.

South Cape Bay - 4 - 5 hours return. This well constructed track takes you across buttongrass plains to spectacular views on the coast. Starting from Cockle Creek Bridge follow the vehicle track along the southern bank of the creek. After 400 m you will reach the walking track. You will need to take food and water on this trip.

Overnight walks - Longer walks also start from the Cockle Creek Bridge. Refer to South Coast Walks Map and Notes for detail. Remember walkers should NOT venture into this wilderness without careful preparation and suitable equipment.

In the Recherche Bay Nature Recreation Area dogs and generators are permitted, and campsites with toilets are located at Gilhams Beach, Finns Beach and Catamaran River. No water is provided. Within the Southwest National Park basic camping facilities including pit toilets are provided at Boltons Green, Cockle Creek. There are no camping fees. Past the bridge park entry fees apply and dogs and generators are NOT permitted. There is no rubbish collection. The nearest waste transfer station is at Dover. Fires are not permitted at Boltons Green. Tank water is usually available but should not be relied upon in summer, and must be boiled or treated before drinking.
The closest shops are Hastings Caves Cafe and Southport Tavern, about 20 km north. Food, accommodation, petrol and postal services are available at Dover, 35 km to the north.

The weather in the Southwest National Park can change very suddenly so be prepared for sun, rain, wind and snow at all times of the year. Check the current weather forecast before venturing on any activities within the park. Up to date weather forecasts are available from the Bureau of Meteorology on 1196

Maria Island Paradise Swiming Diving and Snorkelling

Glamorgan Spring Bay Council is pleased to announce the appointment of Inspiring Place to prepare a visitor plan for the Triabunna/Orford and Maria Island (TOMI) area. The project will include a comprehensive review of tourism issues relating to the southern part of Tasmania's east coast and will involve community and industry consultation, as well as setting out a long-term vision for growth of tourism in the area that can be staged and achievable.  The entire island is a National Park. Maria Island National Park has a total area of 115.50 km² which includes a marine area of 18.78 km², off the island's north-west coast. The island is about 20 km in length from north to south and, at its widest, is about 13 km west to east. At its closest point (Point Lesueur), the island lies four kilometres off the east coast of Tasmania Australia.

Maria Island

Maria Island is perhaps the best place in Tasmania for observing forest birds, and is home to 11 of the 12 bird species that are endemic to Tasmania. It is the stronghold for the endangered Forty-spotted Pardalote, one of Tasmania's twelve endemic bird species. In early 2005 captive Tasmanian Devils were introduced to the island and are cared for by the Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service staff who live on the island. These devils form part of the "insurance population" of devils unaffected by the devil facial tumour disease that is sweeping through mainland Tasmania's devil population. Because Maria Island's devils are subject to strict quarantine, visitors to the island are not able to see or interact with them.

Maria Island Tasmania

The marine section of the national park protects a representative area of Tasmanian East Coast marine habitat, and has significantly larger individuals and populations of key marine species than surrounding waters. This area is one of the most intensively studied marine protected areas in Australia and is popular with divers. The marine section of the park extends from an unnamed point north-east of Bishop and Clerk, westwards to Cape Boullanger and then southwards as far as Return Point.Glamorgan Spring Bay Council has partnered with the Freycinet Coast Tourism Board, Orford/Triabunna Chamber of Commerce, Parks & Wildlife Service and Tourism Tasmania to undertake this project  in recognition of the need for a coordinated effort to address tourism growth as part of regional economic development in this area. John Hepper and his team at Inspiring Place are highly credentialed in destination development planning and have prepared comprehensive tourism strategies for locations throughout Tasmania, Australia and overseas. Work will commence immediately with the final TOMI Visitor Plan due to be completed by the end of April 2011.

Maria Island

 Maria Island Holiday Picnic Your enjoyed, Photograph, walking, bicycling, swimming, snorkelling, diving, bird watching, wildlife observation and relaxation are the main activities undertaken by visitors. Many people take interest in Maria Island's history, and most of the island's walks include sites of historic interest. The Painted Cliffs and the Fossil Cliffs are two popular walking destinations for day visitors, both on the island's coastline. The Painted Cliffs are sandstone with beautiful patterns formed through staining by iron oxide. The Fossil Cliffs are tall limestone cliffs containing prolific ancient fossils. Longer day walks include tracks that ascend Bishop & Clerk 620 m and Mount Maria-711 m. Mount Maria is a six to seven hour return walk from Darlington while Bishop and Clerk can be completed in about four hours return.

 Maria Island tamania is recognising that the tourism industry is entering its busiest period, there will be several opportunities and mechanisms for community and local tourism operators to provide input or feedback on the plan. Consultation is expected to occur in February/March.

Freycinet Peninsula Tasmania Paradise Australia Tourism

Named after the French explorer of the same name, the Freycinet Peninsula and its corresponding national park are globally acclaimed as being one of the best coastal travel locations in the world. The landscape is diverse enough to warrant this four-day walk in order to see it all. Along with two resident Tasmanian guides, you’ll take a blissful and leisurely walk along deserted beaches, up pink granite monoliths and through the heart of the rich native lands of the Freycinet National Park, including the iconic Wineglass Bay.

The walk itself will take you over 37 km of both coastal and mountainous regions, and thebest part is that since this bushwalk is lodge-based you won’t have to haul any luggage along with you. The Canadian poet Bliss Carmen once wrote, “the greatest joy in nature is the absence of man,” a sentiment the vast majority of us would agree with and certainly one which is captured on this tour. Other than your guides, you’re likely to see very few (if any) souls during your break and as a preserved area, most of the wilderness is just that - wilderness!

Freycinet Peninsula Tasmania

The walking itself is moderate and with your luggage transfer taken care of, the main objective is really to take in the beauty and completely unwind. There are more highlights along the route than we can possibly list here, but one site which will utterly captivate you is Wineglass Bay. Named after its distinctive topography, the coast here is a model of perfection and its completely unspoilt beauty is guaranteed to have you reaching for a camera.

If you’re after an action-packed thrill ride you’d probably like to click around the site until you hit something more exhilarating, but broadly speaking this is a tour everyone should try to get on. Freycinet is a spellbinding
paradise and a coast greatly treasured by the people of Tasmania, Australia and beyond. It’s a walking holiday first and foremost, so you’ll need to be comfortable being on your feet for six hours a day
and the temperature can get rather high (Freycinet has a climate very similar to France with over 300 days of
sunshine per year.) As you’ll see by the itinerary you’ll be broken into the walking gently however, so an average level of fitness and a passion for nature is all it takes to have a terrific time.

Freycinet Peninsula

The walking is moderate, with some steeper sections. If you really want to push yourself, there is the option of a very challenging 2 day walk to choose. The walks themselves are guided, but the group size is kept intimate with no more than 10 walkers. You will be dining together and walking together, so see this as a chance to make new friends to share the beauty of the Freycinet Peninsula with!

The lodge which forms the base for your walking holiday is tucked away in Freycinet National Park and surrounded by coastal forests. It can be hesitantly termed as an eco-lodge since it is powered and supplied
solely by sun and rain, but don’t be under any illusion that your accommodation is a primitive affair - quite the
opposite! Hot baths, a well stocked library and luxury beds are amongst the tranquil pleasures waiting for you after a day of walking, and the whole lodge has a cosy yet minimalist feel with open-plan rooms heated by wood stoves. In addition to the large living spaces, there are both double and single rooms available and shared bathroom/shower rooms.

The Friendly Beaches Lodge has won some prestigious awards for its architecture, and the food is of equally
high standards. All guests can expect extremely high quality meals cooked by a resident chef from the lodge’s
varied menu, featuring delicacies such as seafood caught locally and grain-fed beef fillet steak, all accompanied by the region’s finest wines. Any dietary requests can be taken into consideration - simply mention during the booking process.

Franklin-Gordon Wild Rivers National Park Beatiful Landscape

This Franklin-Gordon Wild Rivers National Park incorporates a number of former reserves. The history of each of these reserve areas is provided separately below. Each history has been compiled from a variety of sources and whilst all effort has been made there can be no assurance that it is a complete and accurate historical record for this reserve.  Under the Crown Lands Act 1903 all Crown land for a distance of five chains (100.6 metres) on each side of the Gordon River, extending from the mouth of the Gordon River on Macquarie Harbour as far as Butler Island; and 5 chains on each side of the King River extending upstream from the mouth of that river to the eastern boundary of the municipality of Strahan, was declared to be a “Reserve for preservation of Scenery”.

Franklin-Gordon Wild Rivers National Park

The Crown Lands Act 1903 reserve which was notified in the Gazette on 14 April 1908 and which had the effect of exempting from sale and reserving land in the vicinity of the Gordon River and King River for preservation of scenery, was revoked as far as it related to certain areas described in the schedule to the proclamation (total areas are not stated in the schedule), by virtue of a proclamation under the Crown Lands Act 1935. Note: The Scenic reserve in the Gordon River vicinity likely already covered the same areas, therefore, the CLA reserve had little relevance and the revocation did not impact on the area provided protection.

In a proclamation under the Scenery Preservation Act 1915; two areas of land in the vicinity of the Gordon River near the mouth of that river where it enters Macquarie Harbour (comprising a total area of 6,200 acres (including 2,200 acres and 4,000 acres), were declared to be scenic reserves. These reserves became known as Gordon River Scenic Reserve.

The Scenery Preservation Act 1915 and the Animals and Birds Protection Act 1928 were replaced by the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1970. On the commencement of the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1970, the Gordon River Scenic Reserve ceased to be a scenic reserve under the Scenery Preservation Act 1915, and was deemed to have become a conservation area and State reserve by virtue of Schedule 2 of the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1970. The reserve became known as Gordon River State Reserve.

In a proclamation under the Franklin-Gordon Wild Rivers National Parks and Wildlife Act 1970 and in accordance with Statutory Rules 1974, No.142; two separate areas of Crown land comprising 1342 hectares (1150 hectares and 192 hectares indicated on LD Plan 357) were declared to be conservation areas and State reserves, being extensions to the adjacent Gordon River State Reserve.

Franklin-Gordon Wild Rivers National Park

 The Scenery Preservation Act 1915 and the Animals and Birds Protection Act 1928 were replaced by the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1970. On the commencement of the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1970, the scenic reserve known as Lyell Highway Scenic Reserve ceased to be a scenic reserve under the Scenery Preservation Act 1915, and was deemed to have become a conservation area and State reserve by virtue of Schedule 2 of the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1970. The reserve became known as the Lyell Highway State Reserve.

At the commencement of the relevant sections of the Regional Forest Agreement (Land Classification) Act 1998: the conservation area and state reserve known as ‘Franklin – Gordon Wild Rivers National Park’ was revoked by virtue of section 12 of that Act and, by virtue of section 14 (1) of that Act the same area was then declared to be reserved land in the class of national park and was taken to have been so declared under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1970 and continued to be known by the same name - ‘Franklin – Gordon Wild Rivers National Park’.

Crown land comprising a total of 5,533ha (141 hectares indicated on CPR Plan 4258, 325 hectares indicated on CPR Plan 4267, 3927 hectares indicated on CPR Plan 4268 and 1140 hectares indicated on CPR Plan 4269) was proclaimed to be reserved land in the class of national park; and was named ‘Franklin – Gordon Wild Rivers National Park’, being an extension to the existing reserve.

The National Parks and Wildlife Act 1970 was replaced by the National Parks and Reserves Management Act 2002 and the Nature Conservation Act 2002. At the commencement of the Nature Conservation Act 2002 the reservation of the Franklin – Gordon Wild Rivers National Park under the former National Parks and Wildlife Act 1970 was carried forward into the Nature Conservation Act 2002 by virtue of Section 77 of that Act.

Walls of Jerusalem National Park Exposed Extremes of Tasmania Guide

The Walls of Jerusalem National Park is an alpine wilderness dominated by dolerite peaks, tarns, lakes and alpine vegetation. It forms part of the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area and is exposed to the extremes of Tasmania’s changeable weather. This remote park is not accessible by road, and there are no facilities for shortstop visitors. Bushwalkers should be experienced and well equipped for alpine conditions. Stands of pure pencil pine forest and alpine vegetation are set high on a plateau of dolerite peaks and glacial moraines, tarns and lakes.

The boundary of the Walls of Jerusalem National Park is 1km from the road end carpark. Bushwalkers must walk into the park from this carpark located off the gravel Mersey Forest Road near Lake Rowallan. The carpark is reached from Deloraine by following the B12 through Mole Creek and taking Mersey Forest Road (C138 then C171) to Lake Rowallan. A gravel road on the left just after the Fish River leads to the car park. There is no public transport to this area. The park boundary is reached after 30 minutes walking following the track uphill through forest. The track can be wet underfoot. Drive carefully between sunset and sunrise as you will be sharing the road with wildlife.

Walls of Jerusalem National Park

Walls of Jerusalem National Parks fees apply. National Park Passes can be purchased from Visitor Centres in the larger national parks and Service Tasmania Shops. For the full range of passes including Annual and Two Yearly visit any Service Tasmanian Shop (the closest are Sheffield or Deloraine) or a National Park Visitor Centre.

History Walls of Jerusalem National Parks
The Walls of Jerusalem National Park incorporates a number of former reserves. The history of each of these reserve areas is provided separately below. Each history has been compiled from a variety of sources and whilst all effort has been made there can be no assurance that it is a complete and accurate historical record for this reserve.  The Central Plateau Protected Area (102,000 hectares) was established by Order No.157 of 1978 under the Crown Lands Act 1976.

By virtue of Order 16 of 1981 under the Crown Lands Act 1976, 40,470 hectares (including 23,250 hectares indicated on LM Plan 181, 11,510 hectares indicated on LM Plan 182, and 5,710 hectares indicated on LM Plan 183) was revoked from the Central Plateau Protected Area. This Order removed 40,470 hectares from the Central Plateau Protected Area.  In accordance with Order No.22 of 1992 under the Crown Lands Act 1976, 18.63ha indicated on plan number LD 1376 was revoked from the Central Plateau Protected Area. This Order removed 18.63 hectares from the Central Plateau Protected Area.

Walls of Jerusalem National Park

At the commencement of the relevant sections of the Regional Forest Agreement (Land Classification) Act 1998: 

- The Central Plateau Protected Area comprising 9,460 hectares (indicated on CPR Plan 4654) was revoked from reservation under the Crown Lands Act 1976, and; That same area of land was declared to be reserved land in the class of conservation area and given the name Central Plateau Conservation Area being an extension to that reserve.

An area of Crown land comprising 40,000 hectares (indicated on L.M. Plan 124; was declared to be a conservation area to be known as the 'Central Plateau Wildlife Sanctuary’ under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1970 (Statutory Rules 315 of 1978). As result of Statutory Rules 1981, No.128 under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1970, 5,710ha of crown land in the vicinity of Chalice Lake indicated on LM Plan 183, that was previously part of the Central Plateau Wildlife Sanctuary was declared to be a State reserve and given the name Cradle Mountain – Lake St Clair National Park, being an extension to that reserve.

At the commencement of the relevant sections of the Regional Forest Agreement (Land Classification) Act 1998:
- The conservation area known as the ‘Central Plateau Conservation Area’ was revoked by virtue of section 12 of that Act, and by virtue of section 17 (2) of that Act the same area was declared to be reserved land in the class of conservation area and was taken to have been so declared under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1970 and continued to be known by the same name - ‘Central Plateau Conservation Area’, and; by virtue of section 17(4) of that Act; 9,460 hectares of Crown land (indicated on CPR Plan 4654) was declared to be reserved land in the class of conservation area and given the name ‘Central Plateau Conservation Area’, being an extension to the existing reserve.

Two areas of Crown land comprising 3,915 hectares (including 2,730 hectares indicated on CPR Plan 5006 and 1,185 hectares indicated on CPR Plan 4609) were declared to be conservation areas and were given the name ‘Central Plateau Conservation Area’, under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1970 (Statutory Rules 2000, No.241) being an extension to the existing reserve.

WaterFall In Walls of Jerusalem National Park

 In a proclamation under sections 14(1) and 16(1) of the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1970 (Statutory Rules 2001, No. 180) the boundaries of the reserve were consolidated as follows:

- The area of land given the name Central Plateau Conservation Area and specified in section 17 and Part 1 of Schedule 9 to, the Regional Forest Agreement (Land Classification) Act 1998 ceased to be reserved land, and;

- The proclamation notified in the Gazette as Statutory Rules 1990, No. 79, was revoked, and;

- The proclamation notified in the Gazette as Statutory Rules 2000, No. 241 was amended by omitting from Schedule 1 to that proclamation the item relating to an area of 2,730 hectares (indicated on CPR Plan 5006), and;

- 90 870 hectares of Crown land (indicated on CPR Plan 5722) was declared to be reserved land in the class of conservation area and was given the name ‘Central Plateau Conservation Area’.
This proclamation consolidated and redefined the boundaries to include 90,870ha of land.

The National Parks and Wildlife Act 1970 was replaced by the National Parks and Reserves Management Act 2002 and the Nature Conservation Act 2002. Central Plateau Conservation Area continued to be reserved in the same reserve class but administered under the Nature Conservation Act 2002.
Guide Access
This park offers many opportunities for experienced bushwalkers and cross-country skiers to explore. The walking track from the carpark at Lake Rowallan climbs through tall open sclerophyll forest before entering the alpine region of the park at Herods Gate, just beyond the camping area at Wild Dog Creek. The boardwalk and hardened track continues to Dixons Kingdom and Mt Jerusalem (1459 m). Beyond Mt Jerusalem walkers need to be confident in navigation as tracks and pads soon become indistinct. The wild weather characteristic of the ‘Walls’ is as much part of experiencing the region as the landscape. As visibility can be reduced to zero, it is important that all walking parties carry a map and compass and be able to Lake Rowallan car park to Trappers Hut-1.5 to 2 hrs, Trappers Hut to Wild Dog Creek camping area 1 to 2 hrs,  Wild Dog Creek camping area to Solomons Throne-3 hrs return, Wild Dog Creek camping area to Dixons Kingdom-3.5 hrs return, Dixons Kingdom to Mt Jerusalem-2 to 2.5 hrs return.

Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Spectacular Australia Tourism

In contrast with mainland Australia, Tasmania Wilderness is rugged and forested; it is also scenically spectacular. The Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area (WHA) is geologically and geomorphologically complex and the product of at least three major glaciations. The western half of the island is underlain by fold structures, the eastern half by fault structures, both of which are represented in the World Heritage Area. The fold structure region in the southwest is extremely craggy and densely vegetated, with north-south oriented mountain ranges and valleys. The rocks vary in age from Precambrian to Devonian and were subjected to two major orogenies, the Frenchman and Tabberaberan. Precambrian formations are widespread and consist of quartzite, schist, phyllite, conglomerate, dolomite, siltstone and sandstone. The more resistant sequences such as quartzite and quartz schist form most of the prominent ranges; the less resistant schists, dolomite and phyllite underlie many of the valleys and plains.

Tasmanian Wilderness

Faulting in the east and north produced the distinct scarp-bounded plateaux and residual hills that contrast dramatically with the fold structure province to the south. This region includes the Cradle Mountain-Lake St Clair National Park, Walls of Jerusalem National Park, parts of Lemonthyme and Southern forests and the Mount Anne and Mount Ronald Cross areas. It includes a plateau of sedimentary roof-rocks in the Walls of Walls of Jerusalem National Park and Central Plateau area with a myriad of small lakes, and Lake St Clair which is the deepest lake in Australia. The rocks are Permian-Triassic sediments capped by Jurassic dolerite, and generally occur above about 600m, except in the east. Basement rocks, probably of Precambrian, Cambrian, Ordovician and Silurian age, are generally overlain by upper and lower horizontal sediments of the Parmeener Supergroup.

Walls of Jerusalem National Park and Central Plateau

The Permian lower unit consists of glacio-marine sequences including tillite, sandstone, siltstone, mudstone and limestone horizons. The upper Triassic unit contains banks of sandstone, mudstone, siltstone and coal, probably laid down during a humid, cool climate in swamps, lakes and river channels. These rocks contain rare plant and amphibian fossils. A dramatic period of igneous activity followed the deposition of these sediments in the Jurassic, with the injection of massive amounts of dolerite into the sediments. Owing to its resistant nature the dolerite still covers a vast tract of the World Heritage Area.

Below about 600m, depositional features are typical, including moraines and other outwash deposits. Periglacial activities, including much slope instability, caused gelifluctate, landslip and talus deposits. The river drainage system has a pronounced trellis pattern, with only the larger rivers, notably the Franklin and Gordon rivers, having cut directly through the mountain ranges, producing spectacular gorges. The lakes of the Denison Range are of great interest because of their physical and chemical characteristics. An analysis of the chemical properties, light regime and the Tasmanian endemic algal flora shows that the lakes are indicators of the east-west divide.

Franklin and Gordon rivers

Lake George and later Lake Pedder in the meadows of the Gordon River valley were created by the Hydro-Electric Commission in the early 1970s. The coastline experienced a number of sea-level changes during the glaciations. It is now a classic example of a drowned landscape, seen in the discordant coastline in the south, and the rias at Port Davey and Bathurst Harbour. The geological variety underlies a corresponding diversity of soil and vegetation types, including extensive peatlands (Nomination document, 1988).

Tasmania has a temperate maritime climate, wet, windy, cloudy and cool. The south-west in the westerly airstream of the Roaring Forties is the wettest region in Australia. Rainfall over the Gordon-Franklin basin ranges from about 1,800mm in the headwaters of the Franklin to over 3,400mm near Serpentine Dam. The east is far drier (Bosworth, 1977). Average annual temperatures range between the low teens in winter and the low twenties in summer.

Freycinet Peninsula

The fauna is of world importance because, protected by isolation, it includes an unusually high proportion of endemic species and ancient relict groups. In invertebrate groups for instance endemism ranges from 20% to 100%. The varied topography, geology, soils and vegetation together with the harsh and variable climatic conditions have combined to create a wide array of habitats and a correspondingly diversely adapted fauna: the scrubland, heath and moorland animals have many unusual adaptations. The insularity of Tasmania and of the southwest wilderness has protected them from the impacts of the exotic species that have seriously affected the mainland fauna. Two main faunal groups co-exist there: one that includes the marsupials and burrowing freshwater crayfish that are relicts of the Gondwanan fauna; the second, including rodents and bats, that invaded Australia from Asia millions of years after the break-up of Gondwanaland. The invertebrate fauna, including cave-adapted species, is outstanding: many are ancient relict species such as the velvet worms Euperipatoides and Ooperipatellus spp. which have changed little in the last half billion years. They are considered a missing link between the annelids (worms) and the arthropods (crustaceans and insects) (Nomination document, 1988).

Cradle Mountain

Of Tasmania's 32 mammal species, 27 are present in the area. Four of these are endemic to Tasmania including Tasmanian devil Sarcophilus harrisii, the world's largest extant carnivorous marsupial, the eastern quoll or ‘native cat’ Dasyurus viverrinus, Tasmanian pademelon or rufus wallaby Thylogale billardierii and the rodent-like Tasmanian betong Bettongia gaimondi. The Tasmanian wolf Thylacinus cynocephalus (EX) was last seen in 1936. 13 of the 150 bird species recorded are endemic, including the iconic orange-bellied parrot Neophema chrysogaster (CR: 200 individuals), one of Australia's rarest and most threatened birds, found in the far southwest (Brown et al., 1985). There are 11 reptile species, of which four are endemic and of six frog species two are endemic. The moss froglet Bryobatrachus nimbus is a recently discovered species. The Tasmanian tree frog Litoria burrowsi is mainly restricted to the area. There are 15 species of freshwater fish including four endemic species. Two native fish, Lake Pedder galaxias Galaxias pedderensis (CR) and swamp galaxias G. parvus are largely restricted to the area. In 2003, 28 vertebrate and 3 invertebrate species were listed as nationally endangered (PWS, 2004).

Within aquatic habitats, the freshwater crustaceans are of global significance, as are many amphipods, isopods, crayfish and shrimps which are relictual Gondwanan fauna. Three lakes on the Lower Gordon River are of international repute for being permanently stratified (meromictic) yet relatively shallow and inhabited by diverse and unusual aquatic micro-organisms. Streams, rivers, coastal lagoons and estuaries support many species of native fish such as the swan, barred and clarence galaxias Galaxius fontanus (CR), G. fuscus (CR) and G. johnstoni (CR), western paraglaxias G. occidentalis, Australian grayling Prototroctes maraena (VU) and a highly endemic aquatic invertebrate fauna. However, introduced species, such as brown trout Salmo trutta and eastern brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis have contributed to the decline of several native species of fish. Major rivers, such as the Old and Davey rivers in the south-west and New River in the Southern Forests, are of importance for scientific reference because of their pristine state. Many of the 175 Tasmanian invertebrates listed as rare or threatened are protected within the WHA. These include such species as freshwater snails, caddisflies, stoneflies and dragonflies.

Southwest National Park

At least half a million tourists a year visit the WHA and visitor numbers between 1992 and 1999 increased from ±400,000 to ±550,000 (PWS,2004). Visiting is markedly seasonal, peaking in January and low during winter and spring. Most tourists are day visitors and follow a similar circuit route around Tasmania, visiting Cradle Mountain, Strahan and Lake St Clair. The most popular single site in the area is Cradle Mountain which received 200,700 visits in 1999-2000, a substantial increase over the approximate 80,000 annual visits of the late 1980s. In 1997 the Gordon River received at least 105,000 visitors per annum and in 1999-2000 Lake St Claire received about 104,000. Other popular access routes include the Lyell Highway, and the Strathgordon and Scotts Peak roads into the centre of the Area.

There are now four Visitor Centres, at Lake St Clair, Cradle Mountain, Strachan and Mt. Field and a museum in Cradle Mountain Park. The site provides a range of recreational and wilderness activities, including bushwalking, fishing, boating and canoeing, riding, licensed hunting (of wallabys), camping, caving, mountaineering, climbing, rafting, and cross-country skiing. Long-established trails such as the Overland Track and South Coast Track provide high quality wilderness walks (PWS, in litt.,1996). The Area is well publicised and the tourism and tourist developments are well monitored. Commercialised tourism, in cooperation with the Parks Service, is on the increase. A tourist lodge on Pumphouse Point on Lake St Clair may be developed.

Monday, February 21, 2011

Eureka Tower Tourism Melbourne High Technology Architecture

Vertical City goes to Melbourne and to the tallest residential building in the world  the 300m Eureka Tower, the most exclusive address in the Southern Hemisphere. But is living the high life destroying our traditional city communities? Are these Vertical Villages changing the way we live forever? Architects: Karl Fender and Nondo Katsalidis.

Eureka Tower over Melbourne’s exciting South Bank Precinct is one of Australia’s tallest residential buildings the Eureka Tower. At the time of ground breaking the Eureka Tower was to be the highest residential tower in the Southern Hemisphere. It would require concrete practices and types, of which the likes that have never been seen before in Australia. Before construction began now over three years ago Sika approached Grocon’s Concrete Technical Manager Howard Titus about the advantages that Grocon would gain from producing SCC using Sika ViscoCrete® Technology, a polycarboxylate superplasticiser.

At first Mr Titus a very experienced Concrete Technologist, believed that there would be little advantage in using the new technology, as he was currently producing a very high standard of concrete using other Sika admixtures. After several demonstrations of SCC, Mr Titus acknowledged that SCC produced with Sika ViscoCrete® could be advantageous.

Mr Titus explained that the building would require concrete strengths of greater than 100 MPa and workability of up to 2.5 hours even in the summer. Grocon had produced similar high strength concrete before for Melbourne’s Crown Casino using traditional naphthalene sulphonated based admixtures, but the demands for pumping over 300 metres vertically, and the increasing traffic congestion in the CBD would have put increasing demands on the concrete. After extensive trials it was clear that Grocon could produce SCC, transport 1.5 hours and pump vertically 300 metres and importantly achieve strengths greater than 100 MPa.

As a fully integrated property developer Grocon have seen the advantages SCC produced with ViscoCrete® provides them. These advantages include, but are not limited to, consistent high quality concrete batched in a fully deliverable and receivable condition, faster concrete discharge times into pumps due to lower pump pressures, less time needed in placement into congested steel and higher than previously thought possible
ultimate strengths. Grocon have now adopted the ViscoCrete® Technology, in all their building projects including the recently refurbished MCG.

So it is now clear that the Eureka Tower has set a new standard in high strength concrete construction and admixture technology in Australia, and provides outstanding clear views of Victoria.

Wednesday, February 16, 2011

Hunters Bay called Balmoral Beach Sydney Harbour Tourism

Then get ready for this evening’s gastronomy. A romantic and incredibly gourmet experience awaits you this
evening at the Bathers Pavilion at Balmoral Beach. With a quick trip over the Sydney Hunters Bay you will find a very nice beach, called Balmoral Beach.

Balmoral is the small island called Rocky Point which lies a few metres off shore. This point separates Balmoral Beach from Edwards Beach and is reachable by a quaint stone foot bridge. Balmoral has a unique timeless elegance and charm, almost of an era long gone by. It is not too difficult to imagine victorian era couples strolling arm in arm along the raised beach side promenade, shaded beneath colourful parasols.

Balmoral has a good variety of cafes, bistros and restaurants perfect for spending a long lazy lunch, gazing across at the beach and Middle Harbour. Balmoral has a small marina, a gentle, sheltered beach ( which is not subject to the full tides and currents of the open ocean ), a promenade and park areas.

Macquarie Lightstation The Lighthouse South Head

Macquarie Lightstation The lighthouse was built in 1818 on the cliff top at South Head. Designed by convict architect Francis Greenway, it was constructed of sandstone quarried on site. When the stone began to erode a new lighthouse was built by James Barnet in 1883. The light is now operated by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority.

 Governor Lachlan Macquarie initiated a proper lighthouse to replace the warning light. Francis Greenway was commissioned to evaluate sites and options. In July 1816 Macquarie, with the principal engineer Captain Gill, laid the foundation stone for the building intended to be both a signal and lighthouse, and a guardhouse and barracks for a small military detachment.

The Macquarie Lightstation tower and lighthouse at the South Head being now compleated and the Lanthern with Revolving Lights in Readiness to be lighted for the Benefit of Ships or Vessels arriving on the Coast at Night; Notice is hereby given, that the Lights will commence to be regularly exhibited on the Night 

Mosman Bay Sydney Unique and Modern Attractions

Mainpeak Paddlesports Mostman Bay Beach is a race organised by Canoeing WA with support from Cottesloe SLSC with principal sponsorship from Mainpeak Paddlesports. This event is targeted to engage the paddle sports community to actively participate in a challenging but safe river/ocean race. This event is the premier coastal paddling event on the Perth calendar, and has been running.

Visiting Mosman Bay today, there is little indication of the maritime history, but at various points along the 8 kilometer pathway, there are various historical relics. At Bradley's Head, there is a gun emplacement. Also along the track is a memorial to all those vessels that have been named HMAS Sydney.

Following this early grant others were taken up, although little settlement spread due to Mosman’s rugged terrain and inaccessibility. A foot track ran from North Sydney to Middle Head in the 1840s, but it was not until 1860 that the first proper road in Mosman was constructed. This was Avenue Road which ran from Mosman Bay to Mosman Junction. Military, Middle Head and Bradleys Head Roads were constructed 10 years later. A notable early resident was Oswald Bloxsome who built The Rangers in 1844, a mansion on 40 acres overlooking Mosman Bay

Lady Bay Beach Is an Official Nudist Beach

Lady Bay Beach is an official nudist beach found on the inside of South Head. Facing west, this beach is surrounded by a long cliff and a rocky shoreline. There are great views across the water to Middle Head. Officially declared a nude bathing beach by Neville Wran in 1976, nudity is only permitted on the beach and water. The beach is also known as 'Lady Jane Beach'. You are welcome to use the beach clothed or unclad.

Cannon to Lady Bay Beach 0.3km 5 mins (From 0.18 km) From the cannon, this walk heads up the path and steps and soon turns left to follow the old road. The walk follows the old road, enjoying sweeping harbour views (to your left). About 170m along this road (as it bends right), it passes a toilet block then finds some garbage bins at the end of the road. Here, the walk heads along the narrower footpath for ≈60m until coming to the signposted intersection above 'Lady Bay Beach'. From the intersection, the walk follows the 'Lady Bay Beach' sign down the steps as they wind to the sandy beach below.

Parsley Bay Was Popular For Picnics Camping and Bathing Spot

Parsley Bay is a narrow inlet of Sydney Harbour, the surrounding land enhanced with caves and rock overhangs, a small watercourse and dense native vegetation. The foreshores of this tiny but beautiful bay have long been one of Sydney's favourite harbour-side places, and since 1906 have been officially reserved for the enjoyment of the public.

Parsley Bay History of the site and its surrounds
The traditional owners of this land were members of the Birrabirragal band, a coastal group which clustered around the periphery of Sydney harbour, their culture, way-of-life and economy attuned to the natural characteristics of their foreshore environment. The former presence of this people is evidenced today by rock art sites and shell middens in the South Head and Vaucluse areas. European occupation officially began in 1792. In that year, a grant of a land was given to Thomas Laycock, Deputy Commissary-General and a Quartermaster in the New South Wales Corps. The grant was described as 'eighty acres of land ... at the head of Parsley Bay' the earliest known use of this name, the origin of which uncertain.

Laycock called his property Woodmancote. The land, gradually consolidated with neighbouring parcels, passed through the hands of a succession of subsequent owners, including Sir Henry Brown Hayes and Captain John Piper, before its acquisition by the Wentworth family in 1827. The foreshores of Parsley Bay, as one small part of the Wentworth family’s 105 acre Vaucluse Estate, were to remain in private ownership for a
further eighty years. There is considerable evidence, however, that Parsley Bay was a popular setting for picnics and camping before the establishment of the reserve that validated public access.

Foreshore land at Parsley Bay came into public ownership largely as a result of the efforts of William Notting and his Harbour Foreshores Vigilance Committee which lobbied the State Government from 1905 to secure access to areas of the waterfront for the people of Sydney. Notting, a keen yachtsman, began his campaign to liberate the foreshores in the late 19th century, and from 1900 was joined by a growing throng of
supporters, who boosted his voice in the cause. Like Notting, his fellow activists could foresee the impact of Sydney’s residential growth upon the harbour, as the large, open estates of the few were gradually replaced by dense settlement, and the ‘pond’ in a privately owned ‘paddock’ became fully enclosed by suburban development.

Notting is perhaps more closely associated with Nielsen Park than Parsley Bay, since that is where a memorial to his efforts stands. However, the resumption of the Parsley Bay foreshore in 1906was the first of a number secured by the movement he founded, and as such deserves a special place in the history of foreshore protection.

Parsley Bay Swimming
Parsley Bay was a popular bathing spot with the small local population of the immediate area long before the provision of a shark proof structure was considered necessary or desirable. However, as the surrounding area developed into a suburb with the break up of the Vaucluse Estate, and as the district became more accessible to tourists with better public transport, there was call from public and local councillors alike for better facilities
for bathers. As early as 1914, Vaucluse Council was considering shark-proofing the Bay, and in the 1920s a proposal to stretch torpedo nets across the mouth of the Bay gained temporary, though insufficient, support.

The need for changing facilities for bathers was also a matter for concern, and modesty perhaps being a more pressing issue than safety, dressing sheds were supplied in the 1920s almost a decade before a swimming enclosure was achieved.

Camp Cove Beach Destination Most Popular Sydney Tourism

Spend some time relaxing and exploring Camp Cove - the first landing place for Europeans in Australia. On this walk, you will head across the northern end of Camp Cove Beach, up some steps to follow an old sandstone cobbled road. This road leads to a great vantage point, with views over the Sydney Harbour to the city. This spot is also host to a large (disused) gun, that once defended these shores. Plenty of history and beauty.

Camp Cove is home to a lovely, yellow sand, north-east facing beach. The cove is on the protected side of South Head and is a popular spot for swimming and relaxing on the beach. At the northern end of the beach is a kiosk, toilet block and an entrance to Sydney Harbour National Park. The cove was an important location to the Cadigal (Gadigal) people who gathered fresh water, shellfish, launched their canoes and buried some of their people nearby. This cove is also believed to be the first landing place for Europeans in 1788. The name Camp Cove was given during that landing and appears on the earliest maps of Sydney Harbour.

Camp Cove car park to Camp Cove Beach 0.1km 1 mins
(From S) From the signposted 'Camp Cove Car Park, this walk follows the 'No Through Road' sign to the end of 'Cliff St'. The footpath leads past a 'Camp Cove timeline' information sign then, at the end of the road, turns left, coming to the front of the kiosk at the northern end of Camp Cove Beach.

This cannon was placed here prior to 1890, along with the rest of this gun emplacement and rifle walls. The
emplacement was designed to protect a military jetty and boat shed from the threat of an invasion. The 'Cobblestone Road' beside the cannon was built during the late 1870s or early 1880s and extends from the jetty in Camp Cove up to Hornby Road above. The road was build to carry supplies and ordnance from Camp Cove to the various military installations on south head.

Camp Cove Beach to Cannon 0.1km 3 mins
(From 0.05 km) From the front of Camp Cove Beach kiosk, this walk crosses the beach (keeping the water to your left) and climbs up the timber staircase. From the intersection at the top of the stairs, this walk continues straight, along the timber boardwalk that soon turns into a concrete path. The path soon comes to a wide, cobbled sandstone path that leads up a disused cannon, gun emplacement and great harbour views.

Sydney Harbour National Park Wonder Landscapes of Great Beauty

This walk explores a great section of Sydney Harbour National Park. The walk starts with views of the Opera House and the Sydney Harbour Bridge, and the views continue to get better as you explore bushland and the bays along the way. The walk also explores a historic section of the Harbour, including the fortifications at Bradley's Head and Chowder Bay. Some sections of this walk are closed at night. There are a few places to get food along the way, and many great places to eat your own packed lunch.

Side trips and Alternate routes mentioned in these notes are not included in the tracks overall rating, distance or time estimate. The notes only describe the side trips and Alternate routes in one direction. Allow extra time for resting and exploring areas of interest. Please ensure you and your group are well prepared and equipped for all possible hazards and delays. The authors, staff and owners of wildwalks take care in preparing these notes but will not accept responsibility for any inconvenience, loss or injury sustained by using these notes or maps.

Sydney Harbour National Park contains landscapes of great beauty, historic places of national and state significance, Aboriginal sites, wildlife habitats and rare plants of scientific and educational interest. The park is also a major recreational resource for the people of Sydney and attracts many Australian and international visitors.

Sydney Harbour National Park covers 393 hectares of headlands, beaches and islands in and around Sydney Harbour. It is surrounded by suburbs, defence reserves, industrial and commercial developments and marine facilities. It also adjoins a number of conservation and open space reserves managed by local councils.

The current extent of Sydney Harbour National Park is shown on the park map (centre pages). The park covers four major headlands on the northern side of the harbour (North Head, Dobroyd Head, Middle/Georges Head and Bradleys Head), and two major headlands on the southern side of the harbour (South Head and Nielsen Park), as well as a number of smaller, separate areas of land on both sides of the harbour. It also includes five islands within the harbour: Clark Island, Shark Island, Rodd Island, Goat Island and Fort Denison.

The proposal to establish one national park around Sydney Harbour, incorporating all public foreshore lands, was first raised by the National Trust in 1968. In 1975 Sydney Harbour National Park was established over parts of North Head, Dobroyd Head, Bradleys Head, Shark Island and Clark Island in order to protect the scenic gateway to the city and the remnant vegetation of Sydney Harbour. In 1979, following negotiations with the Commonwealth Government, land previously used for defence purposes was added to the park, and various other parcels of land have since been added. The most recent additions were Fort Denison and Goat Island, which were reserved as part of the park in 1995.

Conservation plans will be prepared for each precinct added to the park and placed on public exhibition and, if necessary, an amendment to this plan of management will be prepared and placed on public exhibition at the same time to provide for any proposals not consistent with the policies and actions in this plan. Sydney Harbour National Park contains not only landscapes of great beauty but historic sites of national and state significance, geomorphological sites, wildlife habitats and rare plant species of scientific and educative interest. The waters of the harbour, while not within the park, are an essential element to understanding and appreciating Sydney Harbour National Park and provide both a link and a barrier between the different sections of the park.

Sydney presently has a population of around 3.6 million people, which is expected to increase to around 4.6 million by 2011. Sydney Harbour National Park is a major recreational resource for the people of Sydney, particularly those residing in the nearby suburbs. It also attracts many Australian and international visitors,
especially to the main lookout areas and increasingly to its walking tracks, while even greater numbers enjoying viewing the park from harbour cruises. It is estimated that there are approximately 2 million visits to the park each year.

Sydney Harbour National Park is one of a group of national parks in the Sydney metropolitan area, which includes Botany Bay, Ku-ring-gai Chase, Garigal, Lane Cove and Royal National Parks, that conserve sections of the coastline, the harbour and sandstone environments with a range of Aboriginal sites, historic places, native plants and animals and habitats

Borogegal Walking Trail and Athol Hall Track to Athol Hall

Int. Borogegal Walking Trail and Athol Hall Trk to Athol Hall 0.1km 2 mins Optional Side Trip:
(From 0.63 km) From the intersection, this walk follows the sign to 'Athol Hall' up the stairs, crossing a large grassy area. The walk then continues up to Athol Hall entrance.

Athol Hall
Athol Hall, built in 1908, was once a hotel. Sections of the original building date back to the 1800's. The hall has an excellent vantage point over the harbour with the Sydney Opera House, Harbour Bridge and city all well within its scope. Athol Hall today is a cafe and function centre with the cafe open Tues-Fri and Sun, 11am -3pm.

Int. Borogegal Walking Trail and Athol Hall Trk to Int. Borogegal Walking Trail and Cannons Picnic Area Trk 0.6km 10 mins (From 0.63 km) From the stairs, this walk heads around the hillside with the harbour below on the right. The walk travels across large sections of boardwalk which undulate slightly as the walk comes up to a trail (which leads to a bench overlooking Sydney Harbour). From the trail, this walk keeps contouring along the hillside, south and tending left, to the intersection, signposted as the way to 'Cannons picnic area'.

Int. Borogegal Walking Trail and Cannons picnic area Trk to HMAS Sydney Mast, Bradleys Head 0.1km 2 mins (From 1.24 km) From the intersection, this walk heads towards the car park, keeping the harbour to the right. The walk leads approximately 10m to the intersection with a track (leading down to Bradleys Head Amphitheatre). From the intersection, this walk heads along the footpath next to the car park for a short distance, until it comes to be above the flag pole, HMAS Sydney Mast.

Taronga Zoo Favourite Attractions Sydney Tourism In Australia

Taronga Zoo opening hours are 9am to 5pm. Taronga Zoo is one of our busiest routes. Please plan ahead, arrive early and allow plenty of time for travel. To assist with safe and timely boarding, customers are advised to be waiting on the wharf five minutes before the ferry’s scheduled departure time. When boarding, keep a firm hold of your belongings and hold onto the gangway rail. Where possible, bulky items like prams, bikes or trolleys should be collapsed before boarding.

Taronga Zoo Wharf to Taronga Zoo Entrance 0.2km 4 mins (From S) From the wharf, the walk heads uphill along the footpath beside the road to the Taronga Zoo entrance at the pedestrian crossing. Taronga Zoo was founded in 1916, with the vision of imitating the Hamburg Zoo's bar-less exhibits. Since its opening, Taronga Zoo has directed more attention to research, education and conservation efforts to support the animals.

Taronga Zoo Entrance to Int. Borogegal Walking Trail and Athol Hall Trk 0.4km 5 mins (From 0.22 km) From the opposite the zoo entrance, the walk heads down the ramp leaving the road up to the left. The track soon leads to a a lookout with a set of bench seats and good harbour views. The walk continues along the footpath to a wire fence then follows the 'Walking Track' sign along the hillside to climb a few steps and cross a wooden bridge.

The track comes to the corner of Athol Hall's grass clearing. From the intersection, the track heads down the stairs to continue along the hill for a short time. The track descends more stairs to a signposted intersection.