Showing posts with label INDIA. Show all posts
Showing posts with label INDIA. Show all posts

Thursday, November 24, 2011

Bharat Mata Temple Unique India Temple

The image of the suffering mother, found in these lines from the popular Hindi novel, Maila Anchal, is undoubtedly the most central among those visualisations which have shaped and reshaped national identities, spanning both pre- and postcolonial India. As we see in the abovequoted example, the crucial aspect of this image of the nation as body is that the body involved is neither anonymous nor abstract. It is a familiar one, revered and adored, one which evokes profound memories, and one which, at this narrative moment, is in grave distress. Even in deep pain, this body commands respect. What is also worth pointing out is that this body is presented as perishable, in the most literal sense of the word.


We have a number of instances where the anthropomorphic form of the nation, Bharat Mata, has been shown along with India’s cartographic form, its map. A popular wall calendar of the Hindu right wing organisation, the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) is one such example. We can divide this poster into three main subtexts. These are a) the central image; b) a quotation attributed to a certain Swami Ramtirth, including a passport-size photograph of the man; and c) the photograph of RSS supremo Rajju Bhaiya and the announcement of an upcoming mass meeting in New Delhi.

The Bharat Mata icon and its various scopic regimes are, obviously, quite mythical. In India, the imaginary bonding between nation and citizen is often mediated in and through religion. Writing on “Nation and Imagination”, Dipesh Chakrabarty has questioned the use of the word ‘imagination’ for the phenomenon of ‘seeing the nation’  in the Indian context. He suggests that it would be “impossible to gather up the heterogeneous modes of seeing the nation in the subject centered meaning of the word ‘imagination’.

For the nation in India was not only ‘imagined’, it may have been darshaned as well.” Unfortunately in the dominant discourse of recent decades, the complexity of the relationship between nation and religion has been reduced to an analysis of communalism. An alternative way to examine the multilayered discourse on the relationship between religion and nation is via an understanding of some of the representational sites where nationhood and religious practice meet.


The imageries of Bharat Mata provide one such location. From Abanindranath Tagore and Anand Coomaraswami’s treatments, to the calendars of the RSS, there has always been a celebration of the nation’s female body  and of her citizens’ male gaze. Nor has Bharat Mata failed to find a place in the plethora of “invented traditions” that abound in the popular religious space. Her temples have even been accorded room in at least two of India’s holiest sites of pilgrimage, Haridwar and Benaras.

Fatehpur Sikri In Agra Attractions

Fatehpur Sikri In Agra Attractions Favorite India Tourism

Fatehpur Sikri
Located 26 miles from Agra, this city was the political capital of the Mughal Empire in the latter 1500s. In the Arabic, Persian and Urdu languages, Fateh means victory, and the city was built to commemorate Emperor Babur’s defeat of Rana Sanga in the battle of Khanwa. An especially eclectic display of cultural influences and motifs, Fatehpur Sikri employed Bengali and Gujarati craftsmen, creating a synthesis of Hindu, Jain and Islamic styles. Fatehpur Sikri is regarded as the apex of Akbar’s architectural legacy.




Goa Popular India Tourism Guide

Tourism plays an important role in the economies of both Goa and the Maldives. For the Maldives, it provides 17 percent of the gross domestic product, over 25 percent of government revenue and around 60 percent of the foreign exchange earnings. For Goa, tourism generates 13.7 percent of the state’s net domestic product, 7 percent of employment and 7 percent of tax revenues. Both states capitalize on their comparative environmental advantages: beach and sunshine. Goa also capitalizes on its unique historical and cultural heritage while the Maldives on its unique archipelagic and coral reef marine environment. Their products and approaches to tourism development are very different: Goa promotes heterogeneous tourism development with upscale and inexpensive charter tourism to international and domestic audiences.

The Maldives concentrates on upscale, international tourism. The experiences in tourism of Goa and the Maldives vary in terms of their environmental impacts, social conflicts and institutional responses. After reviewing both experiences, there is much that Goa and the Maldives can learn from each other. Other states could also learn from the experiences of these two tourist spots in South Asia.


The preservation of the natural environment, the prudent use of natural resources, disposal of solid waste and sewage, and the depletion and deterioration of groundwater attributable to tourist inflows are, among others, issues which both governments face. In Goa, “the growth of coastal tourism has been rapid and uncontrolled,” notes the paper by Sawkar et al. Tourism development has resulted in, the loss of biodiversity, erosion of sand dunes, declining fish catches, accretion and siltation and depletion of groundwater.

Although the environmental diversity and sensitivity of Goa has been widely known, a complex mixture of customary rights, land ownership, a variety of stakeholders with very differing interests, and ineffective institutional and political structures seem to have made it difficult for Goa to define a tourism strategy and to enforce its implementation. In the Maldives, the rapid increase, albeit government controlled, in the number of resorts over the last two decades has also taken its toll on the environment.

The paper on the Maldives by Saeed, acknowledges environmental damage from beach erosion, an alteration of ocean currents, loss of biodiversity, water, soil and nutrient pollution and damage to its coral reefs most notably from mining for construction, anchoring of boats and diving. The Government has played a key role in promoting tourism on unoccupied islands (or abandoned islands where customary usufruct rights were compensated) through certain traditionally powerful families and with certain funding arrangements to encourage foreign investments; the government has been closely monitored the development of tourism.

Goa Tourism In India Backpackers Guide

Most of the tourism in Goa is concentrated in the coastal stretches of Bardez, Salcete, Tiswadi and Marmagao. Over 90 percent of domestic tourists and over 99 percent of the international tourists frequent these areas. Consequently, beach tourism is the only type that is avidly encouraged by policymakers and other concerned parties alike. Goa is visited by two types of tourists with distinct needs which this state satisfies. The first is the domestic tourists, who comprise 80 percent of all tourists. These people come in search of the culture that is “different” from the rest of India, as the Goan image holds a degree of mysticism, a sense of freedom and “unconventional” dress style.

The second is the international tourists who visit Goa purely for the natural environment sun and beaches. Within the category of international tourists are there are two sub-categories: backpackers and charter tourists. Although both visit Goa for the beaches, they stay away from each other. The backpackers are not found in areas of charter tourists; they prefer to mingle and live with the local communities. Whereas, the charter tourists tend to stay in the luxury starred hotels. Domestic and international tourists also differ in terms of the areas they frequent. For the domestic tourist, the beaches hold limited appeal, so domestic tourists remain away from the places frequented by the international tourists.

The timings of visits are clearly different for the domestic and the international tourists. In previous decades, a clear off season for all tourists could be identified, today this is not so for domestic tourists, who come throughout the year albeit in larger numbers in the non-monsoon months. Conversely, international tourists avoid the monsoon months, as for them the use of the beach is the prime attraction to come to Goa.

In the earlier years, the international tourist was one in search of alternative lifestyles and mingling with local communities; however, in more recent years, a considerable homogenization of the traveler has occurred in terms of package tourism. In the 1980s, the domestic tourist came from the middle class and from the adjoining states; however, now domestic tourists that come to Goa are diversifying, as the place attracting a number of the rich young elites from more distant states. In response to these changes, the tourism industry in Goa has evolved into a curious mix of low-budget tourism and up-market hotel development, a mix that is marked with tensions and potential conflicts over the appropriation of resources.

Goa Wildlife Sanctuary Trip India

Sanctuary in Goa is a maritime state along the central west coast of Indian peninsula. The Western Ghats of India is one of the 34 biodiversity hotspots in the world (Myer et al. 2000). Goa (3702km2) occupies about 2% area of Western Ghats (Joshi & Janarthanam 2004) and its biodiversity is under threat due to deforestation (Myer 1990; Menon & Bawa 1997; Jha et al. 2000). Reptilian fauna is largely dominated by the Indo-Chinese element, relicts India’s geological history.

Approximately, out of 530 species of reptiles presently reported from India 197 comprises endemics, of these 98 endemics out of 260 species are reported from the Western Ghats (Daniel 2002). In spite of this high endemism, herpetofauna in India has received poor attention and has not been studied in detail (Vasudevan et al. 2001) and it is possible that a few of them have already been lost even before being reported (Dar et al. 2008). Pit vipers belong to the family Viperidae and subfamily Crotalinae, which is represented by 21 genera. Nineteen species of pit vipers have been reported from India (Bhide 2001) including seven from the Western Ghats (Kumar et al. 1998). All these species barring Trimerusurus gramineus are endemic to Western Ghats (Whitaker 1969; Whitaker & Captain 2004; Khaire 2006). Information on the distribution, abundance and present conservation status of pit vipers in Western Ghats is scanty.

The present study was conducted in Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary (MWS: 208.48km2), Bhagwan Mahaveer Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park (BMWS & NP: 241km2), Bondla Wildlife Sanctuary (BWS: 8km2), Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary (NWS: 211.05km2), Cotigao Wildlife Sanctuary (CWS: 86km2) and in cashew Anacardium occidentale plantations within and adjoining areas of these protected areas (PA). Altitude of the study areas ranged from 20 to 800 m and consists of west coast tropical evergreen, cane brakes, wet bamboo brakes, west coast semi-evergreen, moist bamboo brakes, lateritic semi-evergreen forest, slightly moist teak forest, southern moist deciduous forest, southern secondary moist mixed deciduous forest, south Indian subtropical hill savannah woodland and southern subtropical hill forest.

The ambient temperature usually fluctuates between 15 and 30 0C. The distribution and abundance of pit vipers was studied in all the PAs mentioned above using band transect following Dahanukar & Padhey (2005). Surveys were carried out on foot in different seasons (summer - March to May, monsoon - June to October and winter - November to February) during June 2005 to January 2009. Surveys were conducted during both day and night in predetermined paths or roads (2500x20 m). Geographical position of each study area and location of each observation of the snake was recorded using a hand-held geographical positioning system (GPS). Relative humidity and ambient temperatures of the observation sites were recorded using a hygrometer and mercury thermometer respectively.

Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary


Bhagwan Mahaveer Wildlife Sanctuary National Park


 Bondla Wildlife Sanctuary


Netravali Wildlife SanctuaryCotigao Wildlife Sanctuary


Cotigao Wildlife Sanctuary
 

In all, 45 transects were sampled to assess the species distribution and abundance of pit vipers. Three species of pit vipers, T. gramineus, T. malabaricus and H. hypnale were recorded during this study. A total of 356 pit vipers were observed during this study. H. hypnale was the most abundant species contributing (46.63%, n = 166) followed by T. gramineus (28.09 %, n = 100) and T. malabaricus (25.28%, n = 90). The abundance of pit vipers varied in different study locations.

All three species of pit vipers were observed in all the study locations, except the BWS, where only T. gramineus was found. However, the locals report the presence of T. malabaricus in BWS. The forests type preferred by each species of pit vipers. The temperature and humidity of the area during the present study ranged from 20.88 ± 5.25 0C to 32.44 ± 0.88 0C and 53 ± 4% to 93 ± 2% respectively.

Rambagh Palcae Garden In Agra

Symmetrical design, airy verandahs, and idyllic front lawns dotted with peacocks a destination spread over 47 tranquil acres of verdant, ornamental gardens; Rambagh Palace is an architectural masterpiece. Amalgamation of Rajput and Mughal architecture with astonishing interiors, the palace was lovingly built by the Maharajas of Jaipur. Standing witness to time, a walk through Rambagh Palace takes you back in history. Once the residence of Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II and his beautiful queen, Maharani Gayatri Devi, Rambagh Palace is a living legend of Rajputana history. Gracious hospitality, stepped in tradition, completes the royal lifestyle experience & evokes the splendour of royal India at its best. Old walled city of Jaipur and known to all as the fabled Pink City is at a 2 km distance. Drive 11 kms to the airport or 4 kms to the railway station, you are not far from anywhere within the destination.


The Historical Suites have a distinctive style. There is a choice of new and contemporary suites as well as the original theme-based suites such as Mountbatten Suite and Pothikhana. Rich with memories of a bygone era, historical suites recreate an old world mystique and provide an oasis of calm. The Palace Rooms are retreat for the senses, rich in terms of textures and colors; each Palace room has been redesigned for comfort and is unique in style.

The Luxury Rooms open onto a courtyard which overlooks the sprawling front lawns that further expands to the Moti Doongari fort. Four-poster beds, walk-in wardrobes and spacious bathrooms cocoon guests into the palatial experience. Some suites and rooms have a separate sitting area and are overlooking gardens or inner courtyard. Bath areas have bath tubs with individual shower cubicles. The rooms are provided with a mini bar, Elsafe, tea/coffee maker, hair dryer.

Red Fort of Agra Fovorite Trip India

The Red Fort (Fort Rouge, Lal Qila) takes its name from the massive red sandstone walls that encircle it. Once the imperial city of successive Mughal dynasties, it served as the center of government, the state treasury and the state mint. Within this sprawling complex are numerous palaces and beautiful mosques and pavilions, dating from the 1600s. The Red Fort combines elements of both Hindu and Islamic architecture, and incorporates decorative imagery of living beings, such as elephants and birds which is forbidden in purely Islamic structures.



The Red Fort is situated in Agra, on the banks of Yamuna River. It is known as Red Fort because it is built of a kind of red sandstone. Within this Fort there lies some of the most exquisite architecture of the Mughal Period; like the Pearl Mosque, Moti Masjid, Diwan-i-Khas, Diwan-i-Am and Jahangiri Mahal. The Red Fort in Agra encompasses a radius of three kilometers and is bordered by a wall, which is 70 foot tall. Two walls made of red sandstone surround the fort. The Red Fort has four gates.

Taj Mahal World Heritage India

Overnight excursion from Delhi to Agra, with visits to three UNESCO world heritage sites: the incomparable Taj Mahal, the Agra Fort and Fatehpur Sikri. This optional post-trip extension begins from the same 5-star boutique hotel in Delhi (Hotel Siddarth) that is our home for the first and last nights of the main tour. The standard itinerary calls for a departure from Delhi back to the U.S. on July 26. Participants in this extension will depart India July 28. We leave our very comfortable accommodations at Hotel Siddarth early morning for a 6:00 A.M. departure by deluxe, air conditioned express train to Agra about a three hour ride. The views from the train will offer a fascinating perspective into a very different dimension of India than we’ve just experienced in the far north. The landscape, ethnicity and culture here is far more classically “Indian” than the arid, high altitude Himalayan world of Ladakh.


We will be met at the Agra train station by our driver and guide, and spend the day exploring the sights of Agra by air conditioned SUV or mini-van. We overnight in Agra at the 5-star Jaypees Palace hotel, with dinner at the hotel or a local restaurant. The following morning we continue our exploration of the Agra area, departing mid-afternoon by private car for the return trip to Delhi. We should arrive back in Delhi with time for relaxing at the hotel or last-minute shopping and packing for our departure back to the U.S. the following day.

Perhaps no other single man-made structure in the world is so universally admired and so iconic a travel destination. Often cited as one of the “Seven Wonders of the World”, the Taj Mahal is a masterwork of Mughal architecture and an emblematic symbol of love and devotion. The Taj was commissioned in 1632 by the Emperor Shah Jahan as a tribute to his favored wife, Mumtaz Mahal, who had died giving birth to their fourteenth child. No expense or effort was spared in creating the most magnificent structure possible. Over twenty years in the making, a work force of 20,000 laborers and 1,000 elephants transported the finest materials from across the subcontinent and central Asia to Agra, where the most accomplished master craftsmen and artisans from many countries labored together in common purpose. Although the white domed marble mausoleum is the most recognizable element of the Taj, it is actually just one component in an integrated complex of structures that includes several outlying buildings, gardens and reflecting pools.


World Heritage Taj Mahal

This mission was commissioned by UNESCO and ICOMOS following a debate in India on the construction of the foundations of a new road along the River Yamuna between the Taj Mahal and the Agra Fort within the framework of the “Taj Corridor” project.The mission followed a decision by the Delhi Supreme Court to suspend construction work and to seek international expertise before taking any final decision. During the mission Jean Fran├žois Milou represented UNESCO and Giora Solar represented ICOMOS.
The objective was to review actions taken to conserve the Taj Mahal and the Agra Fort with the Archaeological Survey of India and the local authorities and to observe the impact on the sites and on the surrounding areas of work carried out along the river by the Taj Corridor project. A further objective was to make recommendations to the Indian authorities on the better protection of these two sites inscribed on the World Heritage List.

The situation created by construction work carried out within the framework of the Taj Corridor project has shown the insufficiency of the regulations protecting a site labeled as part of the cultural heritage of humanity. Following consultation with representatives of the Archaeological Survey of India, Jean Fran├žois Milou recommended the extension of the site inscribed on the World Heritage List to include a series of gardens, which, together with the Taj Mahal and the Fort, constitute a unique ensemble bearing witness to the development of Mughal culture in India in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

This extension would involve the nomination of the following gardens:

• Ram Bagh Garden (1526 – 1530)
• Itimud ud Daulah Garden (1622 – 1628)
• Chini Ki Rauza Garden (1639)
• Mehtab Bagh (1632 – 1648)

Varanasi Unique City River Ganga

Varanasi, Kashi, Benares. This city with three names is among the oldest living cities in the world. Varanasi is the city that grew along the banks of River Ganga in the stretch between the Assi and Varuna Rivers. A spiritual city called Kashi in the scriptures and widely known as Benares, the city was renamed as Varanasi after India gained independence. The city is a centre for religion, history, culture and learning. The city is the beating heart of the Hindu universe, a crossing place between the physical and spiritual worlds, and the Ganges is viewed as a river of salvation, an everlasting symbol of hope to past, present and future generations. The magical but sometimes overwhelming city is where the most intimate rituals of life and death take place in public on the city’s ghats.

Kashi

To the people of Hindu faith, the ‘spiritual city’ known as Kashi lives in a permanent state of purity, where the jyotirlinga or column of light joins heaven to earth. It is known as the city of the Hindu God Shiva. Kashi is seen as the ford across samsara, the river of life. To the Hindu, the ultimate guarantee of moksha or salvation comes from dying in Kashi.


River Ganga
The river flows some 2,500 km from the Himalayan Mountains to the Bay of Bengal. The Ganges Basin is inhabited by nearly 400 million people, making it the most populous river basin in the world. The basin measures about 1 million square kilometres and has a mean annual flow of over 400,000 million cubic kilometres. It includes part of the territories of India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Tibet.

The 7km stretch through Varanasi is the only part of this journey where the river turns back towards Her source. Here Ganga is known as Gangamaiyya, Mother, Goddess who nourishes the very soul of Kashi, nurturing its life and gathering up its dead. It is said that the river fell in love with the city and nearly turned back here. The half loop northwards creates the curved bank where the ghats stand today. The flood plain on the opposite bank of Ganga has never been inhabited and stays as a sandy waste, used for growing watermelons during the dry season.

To Hindus (the main religious group in India) the Ganges River has special significance for religious rites. Every day more than 60,00 people come to bathe and pray in the river along the religious bathing areas in Varanasi. They sip Ganga Jal (water) as an act of religious purification. Hindus believe that if their ashes are placed in the river after cremation that they will go to Nirvana (Heaven).

Sera Monastery History Of Tibet

I resided at Sera monastery for a total of about 20 months from 2003-2006. From 2004 onwards I had a basic enough understanding of Tibetan to know what was going on. My teacher was selected by HHDL to serve as Abbot and held that position for 10 years, partly because of his ability to handle the Shugden issue.
At first, the Sera monastery administration tried a "live and let live approach", where the Shugden monks could do prayers in Pomra khangtsen but those of us who didn't want to participate didn't have to. And during the kangso pujas very few monks attended unless they were financially destitute and needed the money. I would say there were only about 90-120 monks who sincerely believed in the practice, out of a khangtsen of at least 400. Things came to a head because the Shugden supporters pushed the issue, handing out copies of the prayer to all monks during pujas and pressuring them to recite. Hanging large Shugden thangkhas in the khangtsen, and fining those Pomra monks who did not attend puja.

Because of this situation, my teacher and the administration at Sera Mey felt they had no choice but to draft the oath for monks to sign. But this was after extensive discussion with HHDL and patiently waiting to see if the Shugden people would lighten up. After they tied up a visiting Dharamsala politician to a chair, the situation was sealed. Khen Rinpochey felt Shugden had to be controlled into the monastery, for the future of the lineage. I doubt any of the protestors have visited the monasteries of South India in the past ten years so really the information they are receiving is not first hand, but rather hearsay. It is simply an opportunity, I feel, for those who have grudges against His Holiness the Dalai Lama to try to damage his image.

Leading up the oath circulated against Shugden at Sera Mey there were also several other important developments. One was that my teacher, then abbot of Sera Mey, received threats to his personal safety when he tried to bring the situation under control by having the monks at least not try to promote Shugden openly. This is well documented and HH Dalai Lama mentioned it himself at the Kalachakra I attended in 2004 in Toronto.

The khangtsen was also being torn apart by the dispute because a new shrine hall was being built and the Shugden elements wanted a protector chapel in the back, and planned on ordering large statues. This further aggravated the situation. Once again, not from the side of the abbot and HHDL's supporters, but from the Shugden side who kept trying to push the issue. The harmony of such a large monastery (Jey and Mey combined form Sera, which has about 5,000 monks) is essential and the Shugden situation was becoming out of control. Not only were threats being made but there were arguments between monks and a deep feeling of disharmony.

In addition, some of those practicing Shugden were even attending high tantra initiations with HHDL despite the fact that HH stated that to do so would harm the lineage, his life etc... In short, they were taking HHDL as vajra master but deciding not to follow his direction in practice. When I asked one monk whom I knew supported Shugden why he was attending an initiation HH was granting in India, he told me to shut up and mind my own business. I was later warned by friends to be less open about my disapproval for such matters because people had been previously physically harmed.


So, that is pretty much all the information I have to share. Of course it is my experience and the experience of my teacher. But, because I stayed at Sera for a reasonable period and speak decent colloquial Tibetan, I feel I am better qualified to inform people about what is going on rather than NKT cadres who have never set foot in India. I doubt even GKG has been there in the past decade.

Saturday, July 9, 2011

Jhelum River Most Popular Atrraction

This study is conducted to understand the underlying physical processes responsible for the extreme precipitation event of September, This Years that caused severe flooding in Jhelum River, the worst one since 1959. Reanalysis data ERA15 of European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), which is available at 06-h intervals with a resolution of 2.5° × 2.5°, and 17 pressure levels, is used to drive the model as both the initial and lateral boundary conditions. The performance of the model is demonstrated by integrating it from December 01, 1991 to October 31, 1992 with a
resolution of 0.44° × 0.44° and 0.22° × 0.22° covering the whole South Asia domain.

CRU data together with real time observational precipitation and temperature data from meteorological stations representating the Jhelum River basin is used to compare and verify the model outputs. The model simulated realistically the temporal pattern of the area averaged precipitation, monthly mean precipitation spatial pattern and the daily precipitation intensity distribution. The model not only captured the fluctuations in the daily Maximum and Minimum temperature but also reproduced well the large scale monsoon circulations responsible for the moisture convergence in the catchment areas resulting in heavy precipitation.

Jhelum River

The extremely heavy precipitation occurred due to the interaction of intense monsoon depression with an active westerly wave passing over the area. At higher resolution i.e. 0.22° × 0.22°, the model suitably resolved the complex topography and land-sea contrast, and hence the simulated results are found very close to the observations.

Time series of area averaged daily precipitation over the Jhelum River basin region. Station observed precipitation data from meteorological stations representating the Jhelum River basin is used for comparison.The model reproduced reasonably the trends and fluctuations of precipitation over the above region, except for an overestimation of daily precipitation in the later June and early July and an underestimation in the mid July, early August and September. These underestimations and overestimations are responsible for the biases in the monthly mean daily precipitation. It can be seen that the extreme daily precipitation is captured well by the model at higher resolution because the
topography is best resolved at higher resolution.

In order to realistically simulate the monthly mean precipitation, the model should be able to simulate reasonably the individual precipitation events. Thus the performance of the regional climate model PRECIS in the simulation of precipitation was further evaluated by calculating the BIAS, spatial correlation coefficient between the observed and model simulated precipitation in the 4 months over the Jhelum River basin region.

Jhelum River

At 25km horizontal resolution the model overestimated (positive bias) the area averaged monthly mean precipitation in the 4 months over the Jhelum River basin while at 50km horizontal resolution the model underestimated (negative bias) the monthly mean precipitation in June, July and August. The maximum bias is in June and these reduced in the later months, probably because the land surface processes and the associated forcings are better resolved in the later months. The spatial correlation coefficient between the observed and model simulated precipitation is found to be relatively lower in June and July compared to August and September. In September 94% was achieved over the Jhelum River basin.

The observed and model simulated surface air temperature variation at 50km horizontal resolution in the 4 months over the Jhelum River. The trends and fluctuations in the surface air temperature simulated by the model at 25km resolution resemble to that of the 50km resolution and hence the results are not shown here. We calculated the area averaged daily maximum and minimum surface air temperature in the 4 months over the Jhelum River basin region. In general PRECIS captured the trends and fluctuations in the daily maximum and minimum surface air temperature over the Jhelum River basin except for a warm bias (less then 2°C) in the daily maximum temperature in June and minimum temperature in June and August and a cold bias (0.8°C-3.5°C) in both maximum and minimum temperature in the later months.

Lakshadweep Islands Rhe Wonder Island In India

The Union Territory of Lakshadweep comprises of a group of islands in the Arabian Sea between latitude 8o E and 12o 30' N and between longitude 71o and 74o E and are located at a distance ranging from 200 km to 400 km from the mainland. There are in all 27 islands, 3 reefs and 6 submerged sandbanks. Only 10 islands are inhabited with very low ground elevation in meters above Mean Sea Level (MSL). These Lakshadweep islands are Agatti: 3.0- 6.0 m, Amini: 0.5-2.5, Andrott: 1.0-7.0m, Bitra: 0.8-4.0m, Chetlat: 1.5-5.5 m, Kadmat:2.5-6.5, Kalpeni: 1.5-5.5m, Kavaratti:2.0-6.0m, Kiltan: 0.6-4.0 and Minicoy: 1.5-70m. One islands Bangaram and one island Bangaram (-0.1 to 0.4m only) has a tourist resort only.

Lakshadweep

The total geographical area of the territory is 32 sq. km. All land is classified as agricultural land and the land use area is 28.5 sq. km. According to 2011 Census, the inhabited Islands had a total population of 60595. The Lakshadweep group of islands viz. Kavaratti, Amini, Kiltan and Agatti witnessed a very damaging cyclonic storm event during 5th – 7th May. Concerned with the likely hazards and the vulnerabilities in these low contour islands situated in isolation in the huge Arabian Sea, the Ministry of Home Affairs constituted a National Task Force vide OM No.31-2/2005-NDM-II dated 30th March to carry out a special study of the Lakshadweep islands to assess vulnerability to various hazards and suggest mitigation /prevention measures.

As per the terms of reference, the Task Force conducted 5 meetings and some of the members visited Lakshadweep Islands. Based on the deliberations as well as findings of the field visit, the Task Force has prepared the report related to vulnerability of these islands to various natural and man made hazards and certain mitigation and prevention measures to address these issues.

Lakshadweep Island

 Accordingly, this report has been prepared to identify the natural and man made hazards and the major factors underlying or enhancing the vulnerabilities. Recommendations are made for immediate as well as long terms measures to reduce the risk in future. Task Force recommends some immediate measures to reduce the isolation of the islands by better connectivity electronically as well as by air and sea travel facilities.

The National Task Force places on record its appreciation for the help and guidance provided by JS (DM) Shri Ashim Khurana and Director (DM II), Shri Reddy Nagabhushan Rao during its working as well as organization of the visit to the Lakshadweep Islands. Thanks are due to Shri Parimal Rai, Lakshadweep Administrator and Shri Madhup Vyas, Collectoer cum Development Commissioner, and their team of officers for facilitating visit of the Task Force members to the Islands and providing the necessary data and concerns of the population.

Each island is fringed by coral sands, and is marked by huge, shallow, calm lagoon on the western side which separates it from incoming swells of the outer sea by the wall of a reef madeup of massive coral boulders and live corals.

A common feature of these islands is that a shallow lagoon exists invariably in their western side separating the outer reef rim from low-lying coral islands composed essentially of calcareous sand and soil. The total geographical area of the territory is 32 sq. km. All land is classified as agricultural land and the land use area is 28.5 sq. km. The lagoons cover 4200 sq. km. with 20,000 sq. km. of territorial waters and about 0.4 million sq. km. of Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Length of coastline of UT of Lakshadweep is 132 km.

Lakshadweep Island Diving

One of the earliest natural calamities recorded was the great storm that stretched the Lakshadweep Islands in April 1847. In 1891, a violent storm struck upon Kavaratti, Island causing considerable
damage to coconut trees. The storm did a great deal of damage in Agatti and its attached islets
and the Amindivi group of islands. Other major storms to have hit the islands are Kalpeni Island
in 1922, Kavaratti in 1941, and Andrott in 1963, Andrott and Kalpeni in 1965 and 1977,
respectively.

Coastal erosion is one of the serious problems being faced by the Lakshadweep group of
islands. Studies on baseline data on erosion and the accretion cycle were carried out by the Center
for Earth Science Studies (CESS), Thiruvananthapuram, in four islands viz. Kavaratti, Agatti,
Amini and Bangaram during 1990-1993 and for other four islands viz. Kadmat, Chetlet, Kiltan
and Bitra during 1997-2001. These studies reveal net accretion of 21.43-m3/ m in Kadmat and
11.05 m3/m in Chetlet islands during the study period. The Kiltan Island showed net accretion as
well as seasonal erosion at certain stretches. Major part of the of Kiltan island has been
undergoing erosion on the east coast.

The wave climate and power potential of the seas surrounding Lakshadweep islands studied by the CESS using wave data collected with a Direction Wave rider Buoy deployed off Kavaratti reveals that Lakshadweep sea is influenced by the southwest monsoonal winds. Waves generally do not exceed the height of 5 m during November-March. During southwest monsoon the dominant values of maximum wave height is around 5 m and during the non-monsoon season it is around 1.4 m. The significant wave heights range from 0.4 to 4.7 m, the lowest being observed in February and the highest in August. The maximum wave height observed during the one year period is 8.95 m in August.

The Lakshadweep has a total population of about 65,000 with a sex ratio of 1:1. Each of the inhabited islands has a junior, Senior Basic Schools as well as Nursery Schools and Madarsas. Some of these schools have been identified as shelters incase of an emergency. It has been observed that these schools have been located on the ground elevation of the island, which is prone to inundation during heavy rains as well as cyclonic conditions. These schools have limited drinking water, sanitary facilities as well as facilities for storage of civil supplies during an emergency and have not adequate facilities to accommodate more than 50% of the population during the time of disaster. The maximum wave height observed during the one year period is 8.95 m in August. The constructions of most of these schools are not in tune with the recommended design criteria.

Dachigam Wildlife Sanctuary Kashmir India

In the present unit, the concept, principles and aims of Dachigam Wildlife Sanctuary conservation have been explained. The need for rational use, restoration, integration and allocation of resources has been stressed. The importance and advantages of conservation are also discussed. Dachigam Wildlife Sanctuary conservation with reference to India is discussed in detail. The main factors which cause wildlife eqtinction are hunting, habitat destruction and predator control. Dachigam Wildlife Sanctuary  has economic, medicinal and recreational value.

They also maintain the ecosystem stability. So there is a strong need for wildlife conservation. To conserve wildlife many acts have been passed and reserve areas created. In India, there are about 412 wildlife sanctuaries; 80 national parks and reserves to conserve wildlife. 'Project Tiger', an operation to conserve the Indian tiger is also discussed in this unit.

Dachigam Wildlife Sanctuary

The rapid decline in the quantity and quality of natural resources has led to a concern for their management and conservation. Natural resources are raw materials obtained or derived from nature. They are classified into renewable and non-renewable resources. Renewable resources are replaced from time to time by natural processes, like multiplication, recycling, etc. They are, in this sense, inexhaustible. Forests, pastures, wildlife and aquatic life come in this category. However, it is necessary to properly plan and manage their use. Non-renewable resources such as minerals, metals, soil, coal, oil deposits, etc., are available in limited amdunts and in no manner can be rebuilt or increased.

If man expects to have a future.on the earth, he must use the resources in the most I prudent manner possible. Dachigam Wildlife Sanctuary Conservation does not mean hoaiding. It means the wise management of resources to provide a continuous supply for a long time into the future. This implies continuous renewal of a resource and recovering, recycling or reusing the products. Dachigam Wildlife Sanctuary Conservation of a natural area means its maintenance in a natural state for the purpose of enjoyment or study in order to understand and appreciate the complexities of ecological laws.

Dachigam Wildlife Sanctuary

Dachigam Wildlife Sanctuary Conservation is a broad concept which involves not only the scientific but ethical, moral, economic and political aspects as well. Dachigam Wildlife Sanctuary Conservation has been variously defined. Conservation for a petroleum engineer is largely minimising of waste from incomplete extrachon and for a forester it may be sustained yield of products. In all cases, conservation deals with judicious development and manner of use of natural resources of all kinds. A generalised definition of conservation is "the maximisation over time of the net benefits in goods and services from resources". Although it is technologically based, conservation cannot escape socially determined values.

Dachigam Wildlife Sanctuary Conservation may also be defined as the achievement of the highest sustainable quality of living for mankind by the rational utilisation of the environment, protection of nature to enrich the life of man and the control or elimination of environmental pollution in its many manifestations. Conservation advocates practices that yill perpetuate the resources of the earth on which man depends or in whose continued existence he takes an interest. Conservation derives its tenets from a knowledge of ecology, the science concerned with interrelationship between living things and their environment.

Dachigam Wildlife Sanctuary

Principles of Conservation

Dachigam Wildlife Sanctuary Conservation is achieved through measures adopted in favour of a natural resource in order to increase its longevity and improve usage patterns. Some such measure are as follows:

- Rational use of the resouyes is one of the concepts in conservation of natural resources in an essentially undisturbed condition because they are of scientific interest, have aesthetic appeal or have recreational value. Preservation also serves an ecological purpose by maintaining the function of the total environment, for example, protection of forests assures a sustained yield of water into urban reservoirs, and protection of estuaries perpetuates ocean fishery. But rational use is not just preservation. It also implies the direct use of resources for their commodity or recreational value. Thus, harvesting of forest crops, livestock grazing of gr~sslandc, atching fish and hunting wild animals can be considered a legitimate part of the rational use of naiural resources, if they are carried out in such a way that the resource is perpetuated and not endangered.

- Concept of sustained yield is involved in these activities. This means cropping the annual surplus of individuals so as not to endanger the breeding stock of game animals or fish. Similarly, tree cutting or grazing of grass should remove only the annual increment and no more.

- Restoration is another important aspect of conservation. It is a widely familiar conservation measure which is essentially the correction of past careless activities that have impaired the productivity of the resource base. Deforested areas and mined and barren lands can be revegetated with some effort. Depleted animal and plant populations can recover if they are accorded protection.

This measure is familiar in modem soil and water conservation practices applied to agricultural land. Restoration is possible, however, only as long as species are protected and genetic diversity of life is maintained. When species become extinct, the restoration of past conditions become impossible.

Rotection of natural resources from commercial exploitation to prolong their use for recreation, watershed protection, and scientific study. This is the concept underlying the establishment and protection of parks and reserves of many kinds.

- Reutillisation is the reuse of waste materials, as in the use of industrial water after it has been purified and cooled. The same process becomes recycling if the waste material requires minor treatment before it canbe reused, as in the use of scrap iron in steel manufacture.

- Substitution, an important conservation measure, has two aspects: (i) the use of a common resource instead of a rare one when it is for the same purpose, (ii) the use of a renewable rather than a non-renewable resource when conditions permit. Allocation concerns the strategy uf use--the best use of a resource. For many resources and their products, the market price decides as to the use a resource is put, but under certain instances, general welfare may dictate otherwise. The allocation of resources may be controlled by government through the use of quotas, rationing and outright permits.

- Allocation concerns the strategy uf use--the best use of a resource. For many resources and their products, the market price decides as to the use a resource is put, but under certain instances, general welfare may dictate otherwise. The allocation of resources may be controlled by government through the use of quotas, rationing and outright permits.

- Integration in resource management is a conservation measure because it maximises over a period of time, the sum of goods and services that can be had from a resource, or a resource complex such as a river valley. This is preferable to maximise certain benefits from a single resource at the expense of other benefits or other resources. Integration is a central objective of planning.

Thursday, July 7, 2011

Bharatpur National Park and Keoladeo Ghana Bird Sanctuary Rajasthan

WORLD HERITAGE KEOLADEO NATIONAL PARK RAJASTHAN INDIA

This Bharatpur National Park or Keoladeo Ghana Bird Sanctuary former duck-hunting reserve of the Maharajas is India’s major wintering area for large numbers of aquatic birds and one of India’s main birdwatching sites. Some 370 species of birds from Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, China and Siberia, including the rare Siberian crane, have been recorded in the Park.

The Bharatpur National Park or Keoladeo Ghana Bird Sanctuary area lies on the edge of the Gangetic plain near the margin of the Thar desert in a depression at the junction of the Gambhir and Banaganga rivers which regularly flooded twice a year, inundating the city of Bharatpur. In the mid 18th century a flood control weir, the Ajan Bundh, was built one kilometre south of the Park, to form a shallow lake, 3,270 ha in area, which was drawn on to flood the depression created by excavations for the bund. This was first done in 1901 to create a patchwork of marshes meticulously maintained by a system of canals, sluices and dykes. Normally, water from the Gambhir river was fed from the Ajan Bundh into the marshes twice a year from the floodwaters, first in mid-July soon after the onset of the monsoon, and secondly in late September or October when the Bundh was drained ready for cultivation in winter.

Keoladeo Ghana Bird Sanctuary
 The area is flooded to a depth of 1-2m throughout the monsoon between July and September, after which the water level drops. From February onwards the land begins to dry out until by June only a little water remains. For much of the year the wetland covers only a third of the Park. In the 1980s upstream diversions and deforestation began to dry up the supply from the Banaganga river and in 1991 a dam was built on the Ghambhir at Panchana, 90 km south. In 2004, the state government, under political pressure to retain the water for farmers in the valley downstream, reduced the annual water flow from the dam from 15 million m3 to 510,000 m3.

Farmers also sometimes divert the released water for themselves. Recent natural and man-made droughts in 2004, 2006 and 2007 dried out the impoundments, enabling an invasion of weed trees and many birds deserted the area. Soils are predominantly alluvial; some clay has formed as a result of the periodic inundations.

This is a climate of hot summers and freezing winter cold. During 1988, the mean maximum temperatures ranged from 20.9°C in January to 47.8°C in May, while the mean temperature varied from 6.8°C in December to 26.5°C in June. The mean relative humidity varies from 62% in March to 83% in December. The mean annual precipitation is 662mm, with rain falling on an average of 36 days per year, mainly during the monsoon in July and August. But between 2004 and 2007, there was a long period of drought, broken only in 2010 and 2011.

Bharatpur National Park or Keoladeo Ghana Bird Sanctuary Vegetation

The surrounding countryside is semi-arid plain where only the Park has much vegetation: the term ghana means thicket. Some 350 plant species have been recorded (Brar,1996). The Park itself is a mosaic of tropical dry deciduous forest (1,100 ha), scrub woodland with dry grassland where forest has been degraded, shrub savanna and grass savanna. Swamps and impounded wetland cover about 1,000 ha. The forests, mostly in the northeast of the Park, are dominated by kayim Mitragyna parvifolia, jamun Syzygium cuminii and babul Acacia nilotica. Neem Azadirachta inidca, probably introduced, is occasional.

Bharatpur National Park OR Keoladeo Ghana Bird Sanctuary

The open woodland is mostly A. nilotica and A. leucophloea with a small amount of kandi Prosopis spicigera and ber Zizyphus mauritiana. Scrublands are dominated by zizphus and kair Capparis sepiaria. Piloo Salvadora oleoides and S. persica are virtually the only woody plants found in areas of saline soil. Khus grass Vetiveria zizanioides and Desmostachya bipinnata formerly harvested by villagers are spreading. The aquatic vegetation includes 96 species of submerged and emergent plants and is a valuable source of food for waterfowl.

However, the alien water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes and the aquatic knotgrass Paspalum distichum, a perennial amphibious grass, proliferated, filling in waterways and impoundments (Brar,1996). Recent droughts and reduction in the water supply killed them off but have permitted the expansion of shrubby woodland of the useful but equally invasive fast growing vilayati babul or mesquite Prosopis juliflora. Saxena (1975) lists the Park's flora.

Bharatpur National Park and Keoladeo Ghana Bird Sanctuary

Bharatpur National Park FAUNA

There are 29 species of mammals recorded (Brar,1996) but large predators such as leopard Panthera pardus were deliberately exterminated by 1964, and during long droughts water-dependent species disperse. Primates include rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta and langur Presbytis entellus. Small carnivores include Bengal fox Vulpes bengalensis, jackal Canis aureus, striped hyena Hyaena hyaena, smooth-coated otter Lutra perspicillata (VU: about 30), Indian grey mongoose Herpestes edwardsi, common palm civet Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, small Indian civet Viverricula indica, fishing cat Prionailurus viverrina (EN), leopard cat F. bengalensis and jungle cat F. chaus (Haque & Vijayan, 1988). Ungulates include wild boar Sus scrofa [200-250], blackbuck Antilope cervicapra (60), chital Cervus axis (350)[230-260], sambar C. unicolor, hog deer C. porcinus, nilgai Boselaphus tragocamelus (480) [160-180] and domestic water buffalo Bubalus bubalis and feral cattle [950-1,000]. Other mammals include Indian porcupine Hystrix indica and Indian hare Lepus nigricollis. Round brackets give the 1980 census figures, square brackets the 1988 census (Vijayan, 1989).

Until the recent droughts the Bharatpur National Park location in the Gangetic Plain made it an unrivalled breeding site for waterbirds and a renowned heronry. During the monsoon an estimated 65 million fish-fry are carried by floods into the impoundments every year, providing the food base for the large numbers of wading and fish-eating birds: herons, storks and cormorants and wintering migrant ducks (Milne, 1997). Some 375 bird species have been recorded, a third being migrant and overwintering. It has a unique assemblage of wetland species, and some 15 species of Ciconiformes nest in the heronry.

The commonest of these are gadwall Anas strepera, shoveler A. clypeata, spotbill A. poecilorhyncha, common teal, A. crecca, cotton teal Nettapus coromandelianus,, whistling teal, Dendrocygna javanica, tufted duck Aythya fuligula, comb duck Sarkidiornis melanotos, little cormorant Phalacrocorax niger, great cormorant P. carbo, Indian shag P. fuscicollis, ruff Philomachus pugnax, probably the most abundant wader, painted stork Ibis leucocephalus, white spoonbill Platalea leucorodia, Asian open-billed stork Anastomus oscitans, oriental ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus, darter Anhinga melanogaster, common sandpiper Tringa hypoleucos, wood sandpiper T. glareola and green sandpiper T. ochropus.

Demoiselle crane Anthropoides virgo and Sarus crane Grus antigone with its spectacular courtship dance, are also found here. The Bharatpur National Park was the last known wintering ground in India of the western population of Siberian crane Grus leucogeranus (CR). Despite reaching a total of 41 birds during the winter of 1984-85 (ICBP, 1985) numbers steadily decreased and in the winter of 1993/94, none were observed (K. Rao pers. comm.,1995). In 1996, four birds wintered in the Park, and in 1997 two adults and a young bird were seen (Milne,1997). There is only one other known western population, at Feredunkenar in Iran, but a thriving eastern population of some 1,350 cranes has been discovered wintering in Poyang Lake Nature Reserve, Jiangxi, China.

There are 13 species of snakes, 5 lizards, 7 turtles and 7 amphibians (WWF-India, 2006).These include water snakes, Indian python Python molurus, banded krait Bungarus fasciatus, green rat snake Zaocys nigromarginatus, turtles Lissemys punctata, Trionyx gangeticus, Kachuga tectum and Hardella thurgi and monitor lizard Varanus sp. Some 50 species of fish have been identified (Kumar & Vijayan, 1988). Protozoa, zooplankton and macrobenthic oligochaeta, insects and molluscs have been studied, especially under drought conditions (Mahajan et al., 1981a, b & c). A discussion on the aquatic macro-invertebrates, terrestrial invertebrates, fish, herpetofauna, birds and mammals is given in Vijayan (1989).

Bharatpur National Park OR Keoladeo Ghana Bird Sanctuary


CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT

The boundaries are clearly delineated by a 32 km-long, 2m-high stone wall, built 1977-81 and being repaired and heightened to 2.6m in 2008. Owing to the dense human settlement around the Park, there can be no buffer zone. The wall totally encloses the Bharatpur National Park to prevent trespassing by humans and domestic livestock, but also bars local people from the use of certain temples and from collecting khus grass, fuelwood and forest products on which they had traditionally depended; it also excluded a population of some 2,500 buffalo and cattle which previously grazed there. However, the road from Bharatpur town bisecting the Bharatpur National Park was relocated outside the boundaries which greatly reduced the disturbance by visitors. This intensifies during the winter when visitors come to see the cranes. The local people see this government-sponsored tourism as a cost imposed on them in their lost opportunities to use the area.

The management objective has been to allow the area to flood and dry out annually, rather than exist as a system of permanent marshes. Some 15 million cu.m of water for the wetlands was supplied from the shallow holding lake outside the boundaries, and the water levels were regulated to benefit waterfowl. If the wetland is in danger of drying out completely, water can be pumped from four boreholes to ensure the survival of some aquatic flora and fauna until the monsoon. However, this is brackish and lacks the nutrients of living floodwaters. Two deep pools, one excavated for the purpose, also serve as natural wildlife reservoirs.

The crisis created by the drying of out of the land which caused the birds to desert and the weed mesquite to flourish focussed national and international concern on the need for alternative sources of water from nearby canals (the Govardhar wastewater drain, the Chiksana canal and the Dholpur-Bharatpur drinking water project (Boojh et al.,2008). In 2005 this led to a campaign by the Tourism and Wildlife Society of India and others to take the dispute to the Supreme Court. Another campaign in early 2007, organised by an Eco-Development Committee, was a program of controlled deforestation.

Villagers were co-opted to fell and systematically eradicate the weed trees and take the wood for themselves which greatly improved relations between the Bharatpur National Park authorities and the surrounding people (Sebastian, 2007; Boojh The management objective has been to allow the area to flood and dry out annually, rather than exist as a system of permanent marshes. Some 15 million cu.m of water for the wetlands was supplied from the shallow holding lake outside the boundaries, and the water levels were regulated to benefit waterfowl. If the wetland is in danger of drying out completely, water can be pumped from four boreholes to ensure the survival of some aquatic flora and fauna until the monsoon. However, this is brackish and lacks the nutrients of living floodwaters.

Two deep pools, one excavated for the purpose, also serve as natural wildlife reservoirs. The crisis created by the drying of out of the land which caused the birds to desert and the weed mesquite to flourish focussed national and international concern on the need for alternative sources of water from nearby canals (the Govardhar wastewater drain, the Chiksana canal and the Dholpur-Bharatpur drinking water project (Boojh et al.,2008). In 2005 this led to a campaign by the Tourism and Wildlife Society of India and others to take the dispute to the Supreme Court. Another campaign in early 2007, organised by an Eco-Development Committee, was a program of controlled deforestation. Villagers were co-opted to fell and systematically eradicate the weed trees and take the wood for themselves which greatly improved relations between the Park authorities and the surrounding people (Sebastian, 2007; Boojh

Bandhavgarh National Park and Madhya Pradesh Amazing Wildlife

Bandhavgarh National Park (BNP) covers an area of 448.84 sq. km. In view of the importance of tiger conservation in India, Bandhavgarh, which has the highest number of tigers in the world, was given the status of a Tiger Reserve in 1993. However, the area faces competition from people living within the Park and on the periphery for subsistence use and income generation. There is a high resource use overlap due to the various people’s activities inside the Bandhavgarh National Park Park. On the other hand, better protection has led to increased wildlife depredation in the form of crop damage, livestock and human losses to the local population. These humanwildlife conflicts pose major problems, which the Bandhavgarh National Park Park officials have to contend with.

The study sought to understand the degree of dependence of the resident human population on the  Bandhavgarh National Park and Madhya Pradesh Park resources, pressures exerted on the Park as a result of this resource use, the changes that the inclusion in the Bandhavgarh National Park and Madhya Pradesh Park entails for the people, and the interaction between the people and
the Bandhavgarh National Park and Madhya Pradesh Park authorities. A variety of methods were used to achieve this goal.

Bandhavgarh National Park-Madhya Pradesh

The type and degree of people’s dependence was studied mainly through focus group discussion and two-staged sampling of 155 households. Mapping of resource use and forest department surveys were applied to gain information about the Bandhavgarh National Park and Madhya Pradesh Park officials’ perception of resource use, benefits of the Bandhavgarh National Park and Madhya Pradesh Park for the people and the wildlife and potential consequences of resource use by people. Secondary data was referred to with regard to conservation policies and legislations relevant for the Bandhavgarh National Park and Madhya Pradesh Park and management practices.

The study revealed that people residing inside the Bandhavgarh National Park and Madhya Pradesh Park are dependent to a very large extent on the Park resources for subsistence and income generation. The results showed that differences in tenure type did not have a significant impact on the restrictions faced and problems and costs incurred since inclusion in the Park. The pressure mapping of the Park revealed excessive overuse of Park resources by the people and a high degree of resource overlap with the wildlife.

Bandhavgarh National Park and Madhya Pradesh

This is detrimental for the Bandhavgarh National Park and Madhya Pradesh Park and contrary to the conservation objective of the Park. The study revealed that presence of alternatives not only influences people’s acceptance of the PA, which is crucial to ensure the future viability of the PA, but also reduces the dependence of the people on the PA. Therefore, provision of alternative sources of employment are necessary for the long-term survival of the Bandhavgarh National Park and Madhya Pradesh Park.

The study concludes that although relocation of the villages from inside the Park is a policy stipulation, at present its implementation is highly unlikely and the chances of relocation at a future date also appear slim. The contrast between the policy stipulation and reality has led to ambiguous regulations and weak enforcement of existing rules. The uncertainty imposed by the threat of relocation provides an incentive to the local people to overexploit the resource base for short-term benefits, as the people do not know whether they will still be there in the long-term to suffer the costs.

Bandhavgarh National Park and Madhya Pradesh

BNP is the only NP in India where eco-development has been launched in villages inside the Bandhavgarh National Park and Madhya Pradesh Park. This might be in acknowledgement of the problems involved in relocation. More research is, however, needed to assess the success of this initiative and how it compares to policy alternatives like the provision of alternative sources of income outside the Bandhavgarh National Park and Madhya Pradesh  Park. Involvement of the inside villagers in Park management and providing them with a share of the revenues from eco-tourism in the area would also be desirable. This would provide a means for understanding the substantive needs of the local people and give them a personal stake in the condition of the Bandhavgarh National Park and Madhya Pradesh Park. It would also help to build trust between Park authorities and the people, a prerequisite for securing the Park’s future.

Madhya Pradesh Amazing Wildlife Adventure In India

As we all knows that Madhya Pradesh is situated at the heart of India. Countless monuments, exquisitely carved temples, stupas, forts and palaces are scattered all over the state. The natural beauty of Madhya Pradesh is equally diverse. Spectacular mountain ranges, meandering rivers and miles and miles of thick forests offering a unique and excellent panorama of wildlife in herbaceous surroundings. Madhya Pradesh is easily accessible from any part of India. Madhya Pradesh is intended to inform the readers about the wild life in Madhya Pradesh. This issue comprehensively covers important wildlife sanctuaries and national parks in MP. I hope that our colleagues in various educational institutions and other friends will find this newsletter useful and also, it would contribute to the public awareness along with a very Happy Holiday.

Kandariya mahadev temple

Madhya Pradesh is virtually a heaven for the wildlife lovers as the state is rich with a huge variety of fauna. There is something magical in the woods of Madhya Pradesh that beckons people here again and again. It is here that one has few of the most spectacular sightings of endangered species in the many celebrated national parks that are scattered throughout the state. Most important parks in Madhya Pradesh are Kanha National Park and Bandhavgarh National Park.

WILDLIFE IN MADHYA PRADESH

The Madhya Pradesh National parks are there, not merely to entertain us but to preserve the precious biodiversity that keeps this world moving forward in a balance thus stabilizes the ecosystem. So a visitor to these amazing lands, should keep in mind the precaution that have to be taken before your trip through the wild. Always follow the rules of the Madhya Pradesh park that ensures your safety as well as the safety of the animals.

Madhya Pradesh

WILDLIFE SANCTUARIES IN MADHYA PRADESH

Madhya Pradesh is a veritable haven for wildlife. In its lush forests, the tiger prowls and the spotted deer, the blue-bull and the gaur roam free. The barasingha has been saved from extinction and its numbers have multiplied in Kanha National Park. The sal and bamboo forests of Kanha, Bandhavgarh, Panna, Pench, Satpura and many other National Parks and Sanctuaries are teeming with all kinds of wildlife and many hundred species of birds. In Madhya Pradesh, the old thrill of the jungle lives on! One third of the land is forested, offering a unique and exciting panorama of wild life. Especially in the Vindhya-Kaimur and the Satpura and Maikala ranges and the Baghelkhand plateau. The old princely families were enthusiastic "sportsmen".

The great hunting families have given the country its great wildlife parks. The chances of seeing them in their natural avocations, is higher than anywhere else in the world. The chances of seeing a big cat, a tiger or lion within naked lens’ reach, are extremely high. And the fact that they are not frightened of you lets you make observations and take pictures, which only dedicated naturalists could have hoped for just a decade ago. Kanha and Bandhabgarh national parks have been very famous national parks around the world. The king of the forest may be easily sighted at Kanha and Bandhavgarh. Equally at home in the Jungles of Kanha and Bandhavgarh is the Gaur who does not fear the tiger. Another native is the Barasingha the only swamp deer who has adapted to hard ground.

Madhya Pradesh Wildlife

Chitals (spotted deer) can be sighted in hundreds. Sloth Bear, the leopard and the buffalo are much less common. At times one is surprised that wild life has survived so well despite the decades of
senseless slaughter indulged in by the so-called big game hunters. Many of the princes marked out areas as their personal hunting reserves: Shivpuri near Gwalior for instance, which has served in
recent years as the nucleus of the wild life park and where Madhav National park is particularly rich in many species of deer and famous for its white (albino tic) tigers. Pench National park is also an
upcoming national park in Madhya Pradesh.

Madhya Pradesh is the heart of India and also home of some of finest national parks. Most of the
national parks in Madhya Pradesh are famous for tiger and elephant safari. Below are the list of
some of the important national park in Madhya Pradesh.

Kanha National Park The Legendary Tiger Of India

Kanha National Park is situated in the eastern part of Madhya Pradesh and has been considered as the best national park in Asia. It covers an area of around 2000 sq. km and is covered by Satpura Ranges. The grasslands are the best place where you spot most of the wildlife. Kanha is famous for Tigers as this is one of the oldest parks to have been included in Tiger Project. A sight of the legendary Sher Khan of Rudyard Kipling's Jungle Book will definitely leave you speechless but Madhya Pradesh is the heart of India and also home of some of finest national parks. Most of the national parks in Madhya Pradesh are famous for tiger and elephant safari. Below are the list of some of the important national park in Madhya Pradesh.

KANHA NATIONAL PARKS IN MP

There is more to Kanha than tigers. The Kanha National park is also home to the rare Barasingha. Seeing them strutting around, flaunting there antlers like crown on their head is a view of fantasies. Other animals that make Kanha one of the best parks in India are Wild Boar, Gaur, Chital, Indian wolf and many more. The Kanha National park is also a great nesting ground for many birds species. Around 300 species of birds, both resident and migratory have been spotted here. Kanha's sal and bamboo forests, rolling grasslands and meandering streams stretch over 940 sq km in dramatic natural splendour. Wildlife species exists today in Kanha National Park, which forms the core of the Kanha Tiger Reserve created in 1974 under Project Tiger.

Kanha National Park

The Kanha National park is the only habitat of the rare hardground barasingha (Cervus Duvaceli Branderi). In the 1930s, the Kanha area was divided into two sanctuaries: Hallon and Banjar, of 250 sq km and 300 sq km each. Though one of these was subsequently disbanded, the area remained a protected one until 1947. Depletion of the tiger population in the years that followed led to the area being made an absolute sanctuary in 1952. By a special statute in 1955, Kanha National Park came into being. Since then, a series of stringent conservation programmes for the protection of the park's flora and fauna has given Kanha its deserved reputation for being one of the finest and best administered National Parks in Asia, an irresistible attraction for all wildlife lovers and a true haven for its animal and avian population.

Kanha National Park-SPECIES

Some Important Places in Kanha National Park

Bamni Dadar: Known as Sunset Point, this is one of the most beautiful areas of the park, from where a spectacular sunset can be watched. The dense Kanha's forests can best be seen from here. Animals that can be sighted around this point are typical of the mixed forest zone: sambar, barking deer, gaur and the four horned antelope. Mammalian Species: Kanha has some 22 species of mammals. Those most easily spotted are the striped palmsquirrel, common langur, jackal wild pig, chital or spotted deer, barasingha or swamp deer, samhar and blackbuck.

Less commonly seen species are: Tiger, dhole or Indian wild dog, barking deer and Indian bison or gaur. Patient watching should reward the visitor with a sight of Indian fox, sloth bear, striped hyena, jungle cat, panther, mouse deer, chausingha or four-horned antelope, nilgai, Hardground Barasingha is found only at Kanha.

Kanha National Park SPECIES


Very rarely seen are: Wolf, which lives in the far east of the park; chinkara, to be found outside the park's northern boundary; Indian pangolin, the smooth Indian otter and the small Indian civet.

Avian Species: Kanha has some 200 species of birds. Watchers should station themselves in the hills, where the mixed and bamboo forests harbour many species, and in the grassy forest clearings. Water birds can be seen near the park's many rivulets and at Sarvantal, a pool that is frequented by wafer birds and the area in front of the museum. The sal forests do not normally yield a sight of Kanha's avifauna. Early mornings and late afternoons are best for bird watching; binoculars are an invaluable aid to the watcher.