Showing posts with label INDIA. Show all posts
Showing posts with label INDIA. Show all posts

Thursday, July 7, 2011

BANDHAVGARH NATIONAL PARK ADVENTURE SPECIES AND WHITE TIGER

Bandhavgarh National Park was recognized as a national Park in the year 1968. Situated in the Umaria district, the park covers an area of 448 sq. km. The Bandhavgarh National  Park has a series of ridges running through it. Initially just 105.40 sq. km. in area, Bandhavgarh with 25 resident tigers, was noted for its high-density tiger population. Today, it has been extended to an area of 437 sq. km. About half the Bandhavgarh National  Park is covered with fine stands of sal, while mixed forests are found in the higher reaches of the hills. Stretches of bamboo and grasslands extend to the north.

The main viewing area is still in the core of the Bandhavgarh National  Park with its 32 picturesque, wooded hills. An ancient fort up on a precipice, 800 metres high, dominates the Park. Bandhavgarh National Park in the Umaria district of Madhya Pradesh is has spellbinding location between the Vindhayas and Satpura mountain ranges. This wetland plateau is the terrain of the beautiful and timid animals to the most ferocious of tigers. This forest was declared as a national park in the year 1968 and then on strenuous efforts have been taken by the government to preserve it. Sal is one tree than can be found in abundance while there are mammoth stretch of Bamboo forest and grasslands.

Bandhavgarh National Park

The lush vegetation provides an excellent opportunity to the animals to hide away from the human gaze. The national park attracts huge amount of tourist participation, a visit to the park will give you a chance to decamp from the prosaic life of the city and towns. Pamper yourself with a little spice in the Nilgai caves excavated from the cliffs to the north of the fort Brahmi inscriptions here date back to the 1st century BC. A hunting reserve of the royal family of Rewa in more recent times, Bandhavgarh was declared a Park in 1968. This is where the famous white tigers of Rewa were discovered. Wandering through the Bandhavgarh National Park on elephant back, the chances of seeing a tiger are quite good. Also to be seen here are nilgai, chausingha, chital, chinkara, wild boar and sometimes a fox or jackal.

Other inhabitants of the Bandhavgarh National  Park include the muntjac, jungle cat, ratel, hyena, porcupine, the rhesus macaque and the black-faced langur. About 150 species of birds are also found here and include the migratory birds that arrive in winter like the steppe eagle and various water-birds. It is possible to climb up to the Bandhavgarh fort for a breathtaking bird's-eye view of the Bandhavgarh National  Park and there is also a small population of black buck that lives here, protected from the predators below.

Bandhavgarh National Park-White Tiger

The forest of Bandhavgarh can be classified as moist deciduous, and the National Park holds all those animal species which are typical of this habitat in Central India. Certain areas of the Bandhavgarh National Park (particularly the south and west) are drier in character, and hold such species as the nilgai and the chinkara. Sal forest occurs throughout the valleys, giving way to mixed forest which occurs where the soil is of relatively poor quality on the upper hill slopes, on rocky outcrops and in the south and west. Grassy meadow patches occur in the valley and along the nalas.

Bandhavgarh National Park-Elephant

There are more than 22 species of mammals and 250 species of birds. Common langurs and rhesus macaque represent the primate group. Carnivores include the Asistic Jackal, Bangal fox, sloth bear,
ratel, grey mongoose, striped hyena, jungle cat, leopard and tiger. The artiodactyls frequently sighted are wild pig, spotted deer, sambar, chausingha, nilgai, chinkara and gaur. Mammals such as dhole, the small Indian civet, palm squirrel and lesser bandicoot rat are seen occasionally. Among the herbivores, gaur is the only coarse feeder.

The vegetation along streams and marshes is rich in birdlife. The common ones are little grebe, egret, lesser adjutant, sarus crane black ibis, lesser whistling teal, white-eyed buzzard, black kite, crested serpent eagle, black vulture, Egyptian vulture, common peafowl, red jungle fowl, dove, parakeet, kingfisher and Indian roller. Reptilian fauna include cobra, krait, viper, ratsnake, python, turtle and a number of lizard varieties, including varanus.

Valley of flowers National Park Amazing Flora nad Fauna

High in the Himalayan ranges of Garhwal hills of Uttaranchal lies an enchanted valley. Here flowered pastures with clear running streams are set against silver birches and shining snow peaks. Dew lies thick on the flowers, birds sing in the surrounding forest and the air is pure and charged with floral smells. Hidden from the probing eyes of civilisation, this Valley of flowers National Park had been known to the inhabitants as the Bhyundar Valley. Now called The Valley of flowers National Park, the valley is a UNESCO World-Heritage site, renowned for its meadows of endemic alpine flowers and outstanding natural beauty.

Valley of flowers National Park

This richly diverse area is also home to rare and endangered animals, including the Asiatic black bear, snow leopard, brown bear and blue sheep. The Valley of flowers National Park stretches over an expanse of 87.50 km and has been acknowledged by renowned mountaineers and botanists in literature for over a century and in Hindu mythology for much longer. The high altitude Hemkund Lake (4329 mtrs) lies in heavenly environs. A steep trek from Ghangharia leads one to this spot in about four to six hours.

Nestled high in West Himalaya, India’s Valley of Flowers National Park is renowned for its meadows of endemic alpine flowers and outstanding natural beauty. The gentle landscape of the Valley of Flowers National Park complements the rugged mountain wilderness of Nanda Devi National Park, home to sixteen peaks above 6,000m, among them Nanda Devi East (7,434m), India's second highest mountain. Together they encompass a unique transition zone between the mountain ranges of the Zanskar and Great Himalaya, praised by mountaineers and botanists for over a century and in Hindu mythology for much longer.

Valley of flowers National Park

Flora and Fauna

· Due to its diverse habitats, the park has a very rich flora: over 300 plant species can be found in Nanda Devi Park and over 600 in the Valley of Flowers Park.
· Nanda Devi is particularly known for its Asiatic Black bears, the snow leopard and Himalayan tahrs.
· As many as 550 species of birds have been recorded.
· Although the abundance of species to be found in the Valleys of Flowers is not high, many of them are nationally rare or endangered.

Cultural Heritage - Local Population - Tourism
 
· Nanda Devi, holding its name due to Devi (‘goddess’), consort of Shiva, has been worshiped since ancient times: the entire basin is deified in Hinduism and believers carry out a pilgrimage every twelfth year.

· Next to the Valleys of Flower Park, a shrine and a temple can be found, which have also been places of pilgrimage to both Sikhs and Hindus for a long time. Some 400,000 to 500,000 pilgrims visit them every year.

· There is no local population in both park sites, but different communities live in the buffer zone around the parks. Conflicts arose when the establishment of the protected areas led to restrictions of access for the recovery of wildlife, without prior consultation of the local population. Thanks to recent efforts, the situation is improving and some residents  profit from eco-development. Especially eco-tourism is expanding - over 2,000 tourists now visit the park per year.

Climate Change and other Threats

· Risks from climate change to biodiversity in Nanda Devi appear comparatively low: as a result of the mountainous terrain, the distances by which species would have to shift in order to follow changing climatic zones are relatively small.

· However, due to the changing climate, the capacity of plant species richness will increase in coming years, indicating that new species are likely to immigrate to the area. This will have a negative impact on sensitive or less competitive species within the current species pool, such as cold-adapted mountain top species.

· Tourism creates litter problems; therefore garbage management is an important issue.

Valley of flowers National Park

 Valley of flowers National Park
Size: 71,783 ha
Location: eastern Uttaranchal State, western Himalaya, 300 km northeast of Delhi.
Recognized also as: part of the West Himalayan Endemic Bird Area

Andhra Pradesh Historically and Tourism In India

Andhra Pradesh was formed on 1st November, 1956. It is the fifth largest State with an area of 2,76,754 sq. km, accounting for 8.4 % of India's territory. The State has the longest coastline (972 km) among all the States in India. Andhra Pradesh Historically, the earliest mention of the Andhras appeared in the Aitareya Brahmana (B.C.800). It was called Dakshina Padh during those days. Megasthenese, who visited the Court of Chandragupta Maurya (B.C.322 - 297), mentioned that the Andhra country had 30 fortified towns and an army of 1,00,000 infantry, 2,000 cavalry and 1,000 elephants. Buddhist books reveal that the Andhras established their kingdoms on the Godavari belt at that time. Asoka referred in his 13th rock edict to the Andhras. Telugu is the official language and Nannaya's (1022--1063) translation of the Sanskrit Mahabharata is the earliest piece of Telugu literature as yet discovered. The diction is so masterly that historians think that there must have been earlier works in Telugu.

Andhra Pradesh

 Andhra Pradesh a rich cultural, religious and literary tradition with major contributions to Carnatic Music, where Telugu became the preferred language: for composing classical music in South India and to Classical dance through Kuchipudi. The State has also had a large number of eminent poets right from Nannaya to the modern times.

The 17th century was the golden age of Urdu, with poets like Mohammed Quli, Mulla Wajhi, and Sheikh Ahmed contributing to the literature. Some of the prominent religious towns and temples
include Tirupati, Annavaram, Bhadrachalam, Basara, Ahobilam, Srisailam, Mantralayam and Kalahasti.

Administrative excellence, which for instance, was seen during the Kakatiya and the Vijayanagar dynasties. Some of the country’s leading educational Institutions like CCMB, ICRISAT, ISB, IIIT, University of Hyderabad and NIT, Warangal are located in Andhra Pradesh. A strong base in Information Technology with perhaps the largest pool of trained software professionals in the country.

It ranks 2nd in the country in mineral wealth and has good hydroelectric potential, some which has been tapped. It has about one third of India's limestone, at about 30 billion tonnes. The state
ranks first nationwide in hydro electricity generation with national market share of over 11% Recent discoveries of abundant natural gas off the coast near the Godavari basin. Compared to most States, Andhra Pradesh has a good quality road network, rail connectivity (except for some tribal regions), sea ports and air connectivity. However, given the growing aspirations of people, this needs to be further built up.

However, recently the performance has been very good. Andhra Pradesh achieved a record growth rate of 10.37 per cent. This is 1.57 per cent higher than that of the previous year. According to data released by the Central Statistical Organization, Andhra Pradesh has crossed the national average growth rate of 8.73 per cent. For the first time in its history, Andhra Pradesh has achieved double-digit growth. Industrial investments in the state rose to Rs.12,350 crores during the last three and half years up to 2006-07, generating additional employment to 172,616 persons, as against an investment of Rs.4,524 crores during 2001-04. According to a Reserve Bank of India report released in August, 2007, Andhra Pradesh ranked second among the states in the country for total investment
intentions for 2006-07, next only to Gujarat.

Andhra Pradesh

Agriculture, a traditional area of strength, recorded a growth rate of 8.38 per cent as against the national average of 2.59 per cent. This offset the below average growth rates in the last decade. Performance in the social sector has lagged behind resulting in poor quality of services in health and education. The amount of total foreign direct investment between 1991 and 2002 was Rs. 13092 crores. Andhra Pradesh attracted FDI equivalent to $138 million recently and entered the list of top 5 States in India.

Transparency India ranks Andhra Pradesh as the 4th best State in terms of corruption perception [4]. Perhaps the largest number of students studying in elite Institutions like the IITs and IIIT are from
Andhra Pradesh. IT exports reached Rs.19,000 million in 2006 - 2007 and ranked fourth in India. The service sector of the state already accounts for 43% of the GSDP and employs 20% of the work force.


Andhra Pradesh is thus poised to make significant progress on various fronts. The people of Andhra Pradesh are enthusiastic about moving ahead as reflected in the vision that emerged from this study. In particular the younger generation is eager to make progress and is upbeat about the future. They are also interested in contributing to the development of the State.

Andhra Pradesh Vision 2025

The vision that emerged was holistic and inclusive. It embraced economics, society, culture, environment and good governance. It also made special efforts to address the issues of poverty and human development, regional imbalances and eliminating discrimination based on gender, caste or religion. There was a strong consensus on universal primary education, inclusive growth, sustainability in development, and ensuring that the fruits of development spread to all the Districts. Thefollowing vision therefore emerged.

Thousand Pillar Temple Kakatiyas of Chalukya Dynasty

The Thousand Pillar Temple with its ruins lies in the near the Hanamkonda-Warangal highway, about 150 kilometers from Hyderabad city. This temple is a beautiful star shaped with several shrines and lingams. There are three shrines inside the temple called the Trikutalayam. The three shrines of the Thousand Pillar Temple are dedicated to Lord Shiva, Lord Vishnu and Lord Surya.

The Thousand Pillar Temple is surrounded by a big garden in which many small lingam shrines can be seen. Further there are 1000 richly carved pillars with an impressive Nandi bull in the temple. Nandi bull was carved out of a black basalt monolith polished carefully to give it a brilliant look. The Thousand Pillar Temple is constructed on a platform that is raised to 1 meter height from the ground level.

Thousand Pillar Temple

The Thousand Pillar temple is provided with a number of pillars which are beautifully carved and adorned. Delicate stone work which definitely adds charm and beauty to this Thousand Pillar Temple. Rock cut elephants and perforated screens in the temple which are the characteristic of the then prevailing dynasty.

The Thousand Pillar Temple is one of the very old temples of south India built by the Kakatiyas of Chalukya dynasty. It is believed that the marvelous thousand pillared temple was built by King Rudra Deva in 1163 AD. It was destroyed by the Mughal Empires during their invasion of South India. It comprises one temple and other building. There are one thousand pillars in the building and the temple, but one pillar will not obstruct another from any point of the temple to see the god in the other temple. The 2.5 metres tall bronze image of Lord Chandranatha Swami in the sanctum of this basadi is considered to be very sacred.

Thousand Pillar Temple

This three storied construction was supported by the rulers, the Jain Bhattaraka Swamiji, merchants and the common people. The temple is famous for the open pillared hall in front, consisting by a large variety of ornate pillars decorated with carvings typical of Vijayanagara style. A 15-meter tall single stone pillar called manastambha stands in front of the basadi.

The present day engineers have taken out all the pillars from the building to make it in to a perfect shape. After they lifted all the pillars they encountered a huge mass of sand. It took nearly two weeks for them to take away all the sand. It was wet sand, it is always wet because there is pipe connection directly from the nearby water body named Bhadrakali Cheruvu. It was one of the master piece in Civil Engineering.

Thousand Pillar Temple

Lotus Temple Architectures of Bahai Faith Popular India Tourism

The Lotus Temple, share certain architectural elements, some of which are specified by Bahá'í scripture. `Abdu'l Bahá, the son of the founder of the religion, stipulated that an essential architectural character of a House of Worship be that it requires to have a nine-sided circular shape. Inspired by the lotus flower, its design is composed of 27 free standing marble clad "petals" arranged in clusters of three to form nine sides. While all current Bahá'í Houses of Worship have a dome, they are not regarded as an essential part of their architecture.

Lotus Temple

Bahá'í scripture also states that no pictures, statues or images be displayed within the House of Worship and no pulpits or altars be incorporated as an architectural feature (readers may stand behind simple portable lecture stands). The nine doors of the Lotus Temple open onto a central hall, capable of holding up to 2,500 people. The central hall is slightly more than 40 meters tall and its surface is made of white marble. The white marbles are from Penteli mountain in Greece, the very same from which many of the ancient monuments were built and also many other Bahai temples.  The House of Worship, along with the nine surrounding ponds and the gardens around comprise 26 acres (105,000 m²; 10.5 ha).

Lotus Temple

The Lotus Temple design looks like a half opened Lotus flower with 27 freestanding "petals" made of marble. The architect, while designing the temple took into account the eternal beauty of Lotus flower. The construction work took almost 10 years before it finally got shape and was open for public. The team comprised of 800 engineers, technicians, workers and artisans who worked diligently to give realization to one of the most complex edifices in the world. The Lotus temple integrates the aesthetic values along with the technological influence within the whole structure. There are nine reflecting pools that encompass the temple from outside. Converting the geometry of the design that did not have any straight line to the actual structure needed a lot of effort and dedicated engineering.


Lotus Temple

The Lotus temple has the capacity to accommodate nearly 2500 people and has nine doors that open in a central hall. The whole structure is made of white marble that adds to the glory of the temple. It is about 40 meters tall surrounded by nine ponds and appears as if the temple is floating like a Lotus flower in water. Lotus Temple is one of the remarkable architectures of Bahai faith. It is located at Kalkaji in New Delhi. The Lotus temple looks like a lotus flower and is made of marble, cement, dolomite and sand. The Lotus temple has no restrictions for visitors and is open to people from all religions. The place provides immaculate environment for meditation, peace and wisdom. The Bahai temple was completed in 1986. Since then the temple has received recognition from all over the world for its splendid architecture and design. Lotus Temple is among the most visited monuments in India.

Jammu and Kashmir Of India Tourism

Jammu and Kashmir Tourism, located in the extreme north of the country, is situated between 320 17' and 370 5' N latitudes and 720 40' and 800 30' E longitudes. It is bounded on north by China, on eastby Tibet, on south by Himachal Pradesh and Punjab and on west by Pakistan. Geographically, this state is divided into four zones – the mountainous and semi-mountainous plain known as Kandi belt, hills including Siwalik ranges, mountains of Kashmirvalley and Pir Panjal range, and Tibetan tract of Ladakh and Kargil. The state has a number of lakes, rivers, rivulets and glacial regions. The important rivers of this state are Indus, Chenab and Sutlej (Jhelum).

There are extreme variations in climate in the state due to its location and topography. The climate of
the state varies from tropical in Jammu plains to semi-arctic cold in Ladakh with Kashmir and Jammu
mountainous tracts having temperate climatic conditions. The temperature of this state varies spatially.
Leh is coldest and Jammu is the hottest region in the state. In the winter nights, temperature goes down below zero and very often heavy snowfall occurs during November to February. The annual rainfall varies from region to region with 92.6 mm in Leh, 650.5 mm in Srinagar and 1,115.9 mm in Jammu. Geologically, the state represents constituted rocks varying from the oldest period of the earth’s history to the youngest present day river and lake deposits.

Jammu and Kashmir


Agriculture
Agriculture is the mainstay of more than 80% people in Jammu & Kashmir. Major food crops are
wheat, paddy and maize. Barley, jowar and bajra are also cultivated in some parts of the state. Agroclimatic condition of this state supports horticulture; about 5 lakh families, directly or indirectly, are related with horticulture activities.

Industry
Handicrafts, the traditional industry in the state, are receiving top priority in view of employment
potential and demand in wood carving, paper-machine, carpets, shawls and embroidery, etc. Carpets earn a substantial foreign exchange. Export of handicraft products has increased about six fold in the last decade. Handloom Development Corporation is producing woolen items like export tweed, blazers, blankets, shawls, dhussas and kani shawls, etc. As per Annual Survey of Industries (1999-2000), Jammu & Kashmir had 393 factories employing 26,311 persons. Total investment was Rs. 58,504 lakh and net income generated was Rs. 18,123 lakh. As on 31st March 2002, there were about 32,245 small scale industries in the state.

Jammu and Kashmir Tourism


Tourism
Kashmir valley is described as a paradise on the earth. Major tourist places are Chashma Shahi springs, Shalimar Bagh and Dal Lake, etc., in Srinagar; Gulmarg, Pahalgam and Sonamarg, etc., in the Valley; various ancient temples, Buddhist rites and scenic beauty in Ladakh; Vaishno Devi temple and Patnitop near Jammu, etc. When the heat in the plains of India becomes oppressive, the people turn to the hills and visit Kashmir valley and enjoy living in house boats. But at present, the flow of tourists to the Kashmir valley is interfered by the universally denounced terrorism. The famous shrine of Mother Goddess Vaishno Devi is visited by thousands of pilgrimage on foot or horseback every year. In 2001, about 39,74,540 Indian pilgrims visited Vaishno Devi temple. The number of Indian pilgrims who visited Amarnath in Kashmir had gone up to 1,19,037 in 2011.

Physiography : Himachal Pradesh lies between the latitudes 30o 23' – 33 o 13' N and longitudes 75 o 43' - 79 o 4' E. The state is bounded by Uttaranchal on the southeast, Tibet on the east, Punjab on the west and southwest, Haryana on south and Jammu & Kashmir on the north. It is situated in the northwest corner of the India; right in the lap of Himalayan ranges. The altitudinal variation ranges between 460 meters to 6,600 meters above mean sea level. The state is divided into three zones the Siwaliks or the outer Himalaya, the low mountains which have less altitude in comparison to great
mountains in the middle, and the zone of the Zanskar (high peaks of Himalaya). Many parts of this state are snow bound from December to April.

Most important rivers of this state are Chenab (Chandrabhaga), Ravi (Iravati), Sutlej (Shatadru), Beas (Vipasa) and Yamuna (Jamuna). The Chenab flows 122 km inside Himachal Pradesh before it enters Jammu & Kashmir. Yamuna has a catchments area of 2,320 km2 in Himachal Pradesh. The climate of northern part or the glacial region of this state is almost cool throughout the year. In winter, snowfall continues until March and could be as high as three meters on the average. The southern part has similarity with the plains and varies from hot to subhumid. The state experiences cold season from October to middle of March, hot seasons from April to June, and rainy season begins from July and goes upto September.



Transportation

Roadways: There were 823 km of national highways, 688 km of state highways, 7,671 km of major
district roads and 3,372 km of village roads, as on February 2002, in the state.

Railways: At present, there is railway connection up to Jammu. The extension of Jammu to Udhampur and survey works in Udhampur-Srinagar section are in progress for further extension of railway tracks in the state. Total rail track length was 96 km in 2000-01.

Aviation: The major airports of the state are Srinagar, Jammu and Leh.

Sunday, July 3, 2011

Bangaram Island and Bangaram Beach Best Getaways

Lakshadweep are a string of little known islands, lying 200 or so miles off the Kerala coast. The ‘Jewel Of The Lakshadweep’ is Bangaram Island, which hosts a back to nature eco-friendly resort, a breathtaking spectacle of sparkling coral reefs, turquoise blue lagoons, silvery beaches and lush green coconut palms.
Bangaram Island has been ranked among the best getaways in the world. A beautiful and breathtaking island in the Arabian Sea, Bangaram is surrounded by a shallow lagoon of crystal clear water enclosed by a fabulous coral reef. The resort has 60 simple but comfortable beach cottages. Within the vast lagoon and 120 acres of lush coconut groves at Bangaram you may discover graceful fish, porcupines, parrots, hermit crabs and seabirds.

As a diving location, the virgin reefs of Bangaram Beach and other islands have been ranked by many of the world's experienced divers as being among the best anywhere. A wellequipped and professionally manned Scuba Diving facility is available at Bangaram Island by the highly respected Lacadives Diving Team .
Many ancient shipwrecks are yet to be discovered since the reefs aren't even fully explored yet. Manta rays, Eagle Rays, Moray Eels and Hawksbill Turtles are common. Diving courses and lagoon diving are offered for beginners. Diving sites are off the reefs and are reached by boat. Diving is permitted only within safe depths around 30 meters. Visitors can avail of a decompression chamber, except from 15 May to 15 September.

Bangaram Beach

Bangaram Island Beach in Coral reefs, which are known for rich biological diversity and productivity, are being threatened throughout the world by various natural and anthropogenic activities. The present study concentrates on establishing methodology to zone the geo-morphological and ecological zones of the Bangaram reef (of atoll type), Lakshadweep islands, using remotely sensed data and adequately supported by field data. Classification system has been evolved to zone the reefs. Comparative studies have also been carried out using image processing techniques in order to establish the suitable technique for studying the Indian reefs. The IRS LISS III images representing three different tidal conditions of the period 1998-2000 were analyzed.

Bangaram Island and Beach

The unsupervised classification of both the raw images as well as principal component images gave similar information. The classified product was subjected to contextual editing. Misclassification among various classes was found to increase with the increase in the depth of the water column present over the reef. The zones identified on the image are central deep lagoon, reef knolls (rising steeply from the central deep lagoon floor), reef edge, reef platform, coralline shelf, broad shallow sandy-bottomed lagoon, beach and two islets. The zonation has helped in getting information on the presence of live corals on the Bangaram reef. This kind of study is a valuable input in assessing the health of the reefs and its diversity.

For deep sea big game fishing, Bangaram is an ideal location. Record size Barracuda, Sailfish, Yellowfin, Travelly and Wahoo have often been landed. Local boats are available here for rent with experienced crew. Serious anglers are advised to bring their own equipment.


Bangaram Islan Or Bangaram Beach of the northern group of Lakshadweep islands lies northeastwards of the Agatti island. It has an extensive lagoon (10.6 km in size), two islands (Bangaram and Tinnakara) and two islets northeast of Tinnakara (Parali I & Parali II). The reef is steep on northern and eastern sides. About eight species of corals are recorded here, dominant of which are Porites, Acropora, Favia and Favites (based on ground observations). Seaweeds such as Caulerpa sertularioides, Halimeda, Hypnea valentiae, Champia, Ulva fasciata, Enteromorpha, Chaetomorpha and Cladophora are dominant in the Bangaram reef (.based on ground observations). Seagrass Cymodocea rotundata inhabits the lagoonal region. The most conspicuous feature of Bangaram reef is the presence of a number of coral knolls in the lagoonal regions.

Wednesday, June 29, 2011

Andhra Pradesh Historically and Tourism In India

Andhra Pradesh was formed on 1st November, 1956. It is the fifth largest State with an area of 2,76,754 sq. km, accounting for 8.4 % of India's territory. The State has the longest coastline (972 km) among all the States in India. Andhra Pradesh Historically, the earliest mention of the Andhras appeared in the Aitareya Brahmana (B.C.800). It was called Dakshina Padh during those days. Megasthenese, who visited the Court of Chandragupta Maurya (B.C.322 - 297), mentioned that the Andhra country had 30 fortified towns and an army of 1,00,000 infantry, 2,000 cavalry and 1,000 elephants. Buddhist books reveal that the Andhras established their kingdoms on the Godavari belt at that time. Asoka referred in his 13th rock edict to the Andhras. Telugu is the official language and Nannaya's (1022--1063) translation of the Sanskrit Mahabharata is the earliest piece of Telugu literature as yet discovered. The diction is so masterly that historians think that there must have been earlier works in Telugu.


Andhra Pradesh

 Andhra Pradesh a rich cultural, religious and literary tradition with major contributions to Carnatic Music, where Telugu became the preferred language: for composing classical music in South India and to Classical dance through Kuchipudi. The State has also had a large number of eminent poets right from Nannaya to the modern times.

The 17th century was the golden age of Urdu, with poets like Mohammed Quli, Mulla Wajhi, and Sheikh Ahmed contributing to the literature. Some of the prominent religious towns and temples
include Tirupati, Annavaram, Bhadrachalam, Basara, Ahobilam, Srisailam, Mantralayam and Kalahasti.

Administrative excellence, which for instance, was seen during the Kakatiya and the Vijayanagar dynasties. Some of the country’s leading educational Institutions like CCMB, ICRISAT, ISB, IIIT, University of Hyderabad and NIT, Warangal are located in Andhra Pradesh. A strong base in Information Technology with perhaps the largest pool of trained software professionals in the country.

It ranks 2nd in the country in mineral wealth and has good hydroelectric potential, some which has been tapped. It has about one third of India's limestone, at about 30 billion tonnes. The state
ranks first nationwide in hydro electricity generation with national market share of over 11% Recent discoveries of abundant natural gas off the coast near the Godavari basin. Compared to most States, Andhra Pradesh has a good quality road network, rail connectivity (except for some tribal regions), sea ports and air connectivity. However, given the growing aspirations of people, this needs to be further built up.

However, recently the performance has been very good. Andhra Pradesh achieved a record growth rate of 10.37 per cent. This is 1.57 per cent higher than that of the previous year. According to data released by the Central Statistical Organization, Andhra Pradesh has crossed the national average growth rate of 8.73 per cent. For the first time in its history, Andhra Pradesh has achieved double-digit growth. Industrial investments in the state rose to Rs.12,350 crores during the last three and half years up to 2006-07, generating additional employment to 172,616 persons, as against an investment of Rs.4,524 crores during 2001-04. According to a Reserve Bank of India report released in August, 2007, Andhra Pradesh ranked second among the states in the country for total investment
intentions for 2006-07, next only to Gujarat.

Andhra Pradesh

Agriculture, a traditional area of strength, recorded a growth rate of 8.38 per cent as against the national average of 2.59 per cent. This offset the below average growth rates in the last decade. Performance in the social sector has lagged behind resulting in poor quality of services in health and education. The amount of total foreign direct investment between 1991 and 2002 was Rs. 13092 crores. Andhra Pradesh attracted FDI equivalent to $138 million recently and entered the list of top 5 States in India.

Transparency India ranks Andhra Pradesh as the 4th best State in terms of corruption perception [4]. Perhaps the largest number of students studying in elite Institutions like the IITs and IIIT are from
Andhra Pradesh. IT exports reached Rs.19,000 million in 2006 - 2007 and ranked fourth in India. The service sector of the state already accounts for 43% of the GSDP and employs 20% of the work force.


Andhra Pradesh is thus poised to make significant progress on various fronts. The people of Andhra Pradesh are enthusiastic about moving ahead as reflected in the vision that emerged from this study. In particular the younger generation is eager to make progress and is upbeat about the future. They are also interested in contributing to the development of the State.

Andhra Pradesh Vision 2025

The vision that emerged was holistic and inclusive. It embraced economics, society, culture, environment and good governance. It also made special efforts to address the issues of poverty and human development, regional imbalances and eliminating discrimination based on gender, caste or religion. There was a strong consensus on universal primary education, inclusive growth, sustainability in development, and ensuring that the fruits of development spread to all the Districts. Thefollowing vision therefore emerged.