Showing posts with label THAILAND. Show all posts
Showing posts with label THAILAND. Show all posts

Tuesday, April 26, 2011

Wat Phra Si Ratana Mahathat and Sukhothai Historical Park The History Geological In Thailand

Wat Phra Si Ratana Mahathat

Wat Phra Si Ratana Mahathat image was named Phra Chinarat (Victorious King), and it became the centrepiece of the monastery. All three stayed at the wat for 400 years, at which point the other two, Phra Chinasi and Phra Satsada, were moved to Wat Bowonniwet in Bangkok Considered by many to be the most beautiful Buddha image in Thailand, Phra Chinarat Buddha was cast in classic late Sukhothai style, but with the major stylistic addition of a flame-like halo circumscribing a dramatic silhouette around the head and body.




The flame halo transforms into dragon-serpent heads on either side of the image. In addition the head of the image is proportionally wider than for standard Sukhothai Buddhas, adding an impression of strength and solidity. A local bronze foundry in the city one of the most successful in Thailand does a steady trade casting Phra Chinarat copies, small and large. The wihan containing Phra Chinarat is also a masterpiece of Thai temple art.


Sukhothai Historical Park 

Wat Phra Si Ratana Mahathat, which translates as Monastery of the Great Sacred Royal Gem Relic, is one of the oldest and most significant Buddhist monastery ruins in Thailand. Once a farflung Angkor satellite state, as the Angkor Empire’s power waned in the early 13th century, the principality declared its independence under Thai chieftain Phaya Si Intharathit in 1238. Si Intharathit called the new Thai kingdom ‘Sukhothai,’ the Dawn of Happiness.


Sukhothai’s third king, Ram Khamhaeng (Rama the Brave, 1279–1317), forged an important alliance with Lanna to the north,) enabling him to expand the kingdom’s influence to include most of present-day Thailand, western Cambodia, the entire Malayan Peninsula and Laos. The learned monarch also sponsored the codification of the Thai alphabet, and left behind the oldest known piece of Thai writing a stone slab inscription dating to 1292.


Before Sukhothai was annexed to the Ayuthaya kingdom (Siam) in central Thailand in 1376, its scholars and artists had helped forge key components of the Thai national identify, including literature and architecture. Sukhothai temple art and architecture combined Khmer, Thai, Sinhalese and Mon influences to forge a distinct Sukhothai flavour. Unfortunately the kingdom’s grand architecture was nearly forgotten as the centre of power moved to Ayuthaya and later to Bangkok and the neglected ancient site fell into ruin until a government restoration project was approved in 1976. In 1988, the old city site was opened to the public as Sukhothai Historical Park, and in 1991 Unesco added the site to its World Heritage list.



The 70-sq-km park contains 193 ruins Left: Northern Thailand’s most famous temple mural shows a heavily tattooed Tai Lü man flirting with a well-dressed woman. Above: This scene depicts a traditional weaving loom and Lannastyle costumes.

Wat Pho Budhist Temple UNESCO Heritage Site

Bangkok’s oldest and largest monastery occupies 25 acres adjacent to the Grand Palace and near the Tha Tian river pier, in the historic royal Ko Ratanakosin district. The grounds are divided into two separate cloistered compounds divided by Soi Chetuphon. Tourists typically visit only the northern compound, where a world-famous reclining Buddha and massage school are located, along with the main wihan and bot. Across the soi, the much less-visited southern compound contains monks’ residences and a secular school.



Wat Pho architecture By order of Rama I, construction on Wat Pho or Wat Phra Chetuphon began in 1789 and was completed 16 years later. An earlier 16th-century temple called Wat Photharam occupied the same site and was partially incorporated into the newer project. The short name for the original temple, Wat Pho, remains the most common moniker for its replacement.


The new monastery served as a centre for traditional Thai medical knowledge. A large series of marble slabs were inscribed with medical texts, including herbal remedy formulae, and installed in the northern temple pavilions. In 2008, the plaques were listed by UNESCO’s Memory of the World Programme, which recognises the preservation of valuable cultural archives around the world.


Wat Pho is one of the largest and oldest wats in Bangkok (with an area of 50 rai, 80,000 square metres), and is home to more than one thousand Buddha images, as well as one of the largest single Buddha images: the Reclining Buddha. The Wat Pho complex consists of two walled compounds bisected by Soi Chetuphon running east–west. The northern walled compound is where the reclining Buddha and massage school are found. Wat Pho is a Buddhist temple in Phra Nakhon district, Bangkok, Thailand. It is located in the Rattanakosin district directly adjacent to the Grand Palace. Known also as the Temple of the Reclining Buddha, its official name is Wat Phra Chettuphon Wimon Mangkhalaram Ratchaworamahawihan.

Wat Hua Khuang Historical Architecture In Thailand Tourism

Wat Hua Khuang Believed to have been constructed around 1525, Wat Hua Khuang was restored in 1882 and again in 1927. The compound is relatively small and today just three of the original structures are still standing. Typical of Tai Lü and some Lanna temples, one the chapel serves as both bot and wihan. The style of the building is Tai Lü, with thick walls and small windows. The main entry stairs are flanked by huge single-headed naga, raised high as at Wat Phra That Chae Haeng.


                                                                                                    
Naga encompass the bargeboards and appear in stucco reliefs over the side entrances as well, confirming the building’s Tai Lü origins. A large but simply carved wooden eyebrow pelmet, similar to those found among temples in Luang Prabang, Laos, hangs over the entry veranda. Heavily decorated window frames possibly added later are topped by a hemispherical sun-ray pattern similar to the front gable decoration found at Wat Ton Laeng, a provincial Tai Lü temple much farther north in Nan Province.


Inside, teak roof pillars that probably once displayed lai kham ornamentation or wood-andglass mosaic rosettes are now plain and whitewashed. The large principal Buddha image, fashioned in the Thai Yuan style, sits at the back on a huge naga.

Wat Arun - Temple of The Dawn Most Beauty Temple In Bangkok

Temple of the Dawn, or Wat Arun, is across from Bangkok in the sister city of Thonburi. It is most easily reached by water-taxi from any of the piers along the river. The closest pier is at Tha Tien, just on the opposite bank, where boats leave frequently in the morning. It has recently undergone major renovations.

Wat Arun Construction of the tall prang and four smaller ones was started by King Rama II   1809-1824  and completed by King Rama III (1824-1851). The towers are supported by rows of demos and monkeys. Very steep and narrow steps lead to a balcony high on the central tower. The circumference of the base of the structure is 234 meters, and the central prang is 250 foot high.

 Wat Arun or the Temple of Dawn, is named after Aruna, the Indian God of Dawn. Sitting majestically on the Thonburi side of the Chao Phraya River, the legendary Wat Arun is one of the most striking riverside landmarks of Thailand. Despite the name, the most spectacular view of the glittering monument can be seen from the east side of the river at sunset, when the spires of Wat Arun make an impressive silhouette against the skyline.


This Wat or Buddhist temple is an architectural representation of Mount Meru, the center of the world in Buddhist cosmology. In the mythology of Tibetan Buddhism, Mount Meru is a place that simultaneously represents the center of the universe and the single-pointedness of mind sought by adepts. Thousands of miles in height, Meru is located somewhere beyond the physical plane of reality, in a realm of perfection and transcendence. The four-corner prang of Wat Arun, which house images of the guardian gods of the four directions, reinforces this mystical symbolism.




An older temple, Wat Chaeng, was on this site when King Taksin established his capital at Thonburi, and he used it as the royal temple. In the early years of the 19th century, King Rama II enlarged the temple and raise the central tower from 15 to its present 79 metres, making it one of the tallest religious structures in the country. Because of the soft earth, this engineering feat took years and was completed during the reign of his successor.


The great rounded spire is covered with pieces of multicoloured Chinese porcelain embedded in cement. After the builders ran out of porcelain, Rama III called upon his subjects to contribute any broken crockery they could find to complete the decoration; he was rewarded with thousands of pieces. Visitors can climb halfway up the tower and get a fine view of the temple compound and the river.

Tiger Temple in Kanchanaburi Amazing Tourist In Bangkok Thailand

Each day between 1pm and 4pm, an average of ten tigers are put on public display in the Temple's 'Tiger Canyon' which, at the end of 2007, received 300 - 400 primarily foreign visitors a day. In early 2008 however, a volunteer estimated more than 880 visitors in a single day. Aside from touching and sitting on the tigers, being photographed with a tigers' heads in your lap provides a chief attraction for visiting tourists. Tigers remain in the Canyon for about three hours. There is virtually no shade (except for what is provided to tourists) and temperatures can rise well above 40°C in the sun.

The tigers are led on a short leash from their cages to the Canyon by Temple staff. There, they are chained on fixed 3m - 5m chains, and heavy concrete bowls are against or set close to the tiger’s body to oblige the animal to adopt a good pose for the tourists and maintain it. Tigers are dragged into position by their tail and even punched or beaten to adopt particular postures that appeal to the tourists.



Tiger Temple staff stay close to the animals at all times to maintain control by use of tiger urine squirted from a bottle into the animal's face. In the wild, tigers use urine as a territorial or aggressive signal: sprayed at close quarters it would represent an extremely aggressive gesture from a dominant animal.

Visitor Safety
The CWI investigation raises concerns about the safety of visitors to the Tiger Temple. There are numerous well-documented and sometimes fatal attacks on humans by 'trained' and apparently mild-mannered captive wild cats. These include attacks during photography sessions. At the Temple, hundreds of visitors, some of them young children, are actively encouraged to make close physical contact with tigers during daily photo sessions. Staff fail to prevent direct contact with the animals even when tigers are behaving aggressively. Furthermore, staff and the Tiger Temple as a whole, are unprepared and ill-equipped to deal with potential emergencies. The Tiger Temple explicitly renounces any responsibility for injuries or damage, by asking visitors to sign a disclaimer at the entrance.



According to its own website 1, the Wat Pa Luangta Bua Yannasampanno Forest Monastery in Kanchanaburi, Thailand widely known as the Tiger Temple and founded in 1994 - acquired its first tiger cubs in 1999/2000. Reportedly, the animals were brought to the Monastery by police and other people who had rescued them from tiger poachers. Since then, more tigers have arrived from other sources (as discussed in this report), and have been bred at the Temple. Others have apparently left the Temple at various times.



The Tiger Temple is open to visitors, who pay an entrance fee, and actively seeks donations to fund its activities. Tigers are put on display for visitors in a dedicated area adjacent to the Temple. This is known as the ‘Tiger Canyon’, which has developed into a successful tourist attraction on the basis of the Temple’s humane claims. Boosted by the screening of promotional material about the Temple on the television channel ‘Animal Planet’ (filmed in December 20032 and shown around the world on the Discovery Network), tourist numbers grew substantially, with estimates averaging 100 - 300 visitors a day. In early 2008, a volunteer estimated more than 880 visitors on one particular day.

 Various people provided information to Care for the Wild International, which prompted further concerns. CWI therefore undertook its own investigations between 2005 - 2008 with the help of individuals who enlisted as volunteers at the Temple. This report summarises the findings of that investigation. CWI's SE Asia representative to the Temple also made formal visits to the Temple in November 2006 and January 2007, to discuss the concerns with the temple management, but they were not open to positive dialogue.

Following the worldwide broadcast of a two-part television documentary on the Thai Tiger Temple in Kanchanaburi, this facility has become a popular tourist destination that attracts hundreds of international visitors each day.

The Tiger Temple's success is based around claims that its tigers were rescued from poachers and live and move freely and peacefully amongst the temple's monks, who are actively engaged in conservation and rescue work. Prompted by concerns raised by tourists and Tiger Temple volunteer workers, Care for the Wild International's (CWI) investigation uncovered disturbing evidence of serious conservation and animal welfare concerns, including:
- illegal tiger trafficking
- systematic physical abuse of the tigers held at the temple, and
- high risk interactions between tigers and tourists.

Tiger temple Location
: 38 km from downtown Kanchaburi, in Saiyok District of Kanchanaburi Province

The Emerald Buddha Temple or Wat Phra Keo Bangkok Tourism Favorite

This temple adjoins the Grand Palace and serves as the Royal Temple where the King performs religious ceremonies. It includes a dazzling collection of gilded spires and pavilions and mythological gods. It is what most foreigners expect to see when they come to Thailand, and it is the single most powerful image visitors take away when they leave. The compound is open to the public free on Sundays and Buddhist holidays; on other days there is an admission charge.



To fully appreciate its splendour, Wat Phra Keo deserves at least two visits. The first should be on one of the non-public days, when admission is charged. At those times, the compound is relatively uncrowded, and you can wander about at leisure inspecting its serene treasures. The second visit, however, should be on a public day for only then can you witness the vital role the temple and its celebrated image play in the life of the Thai people. The ardent worshipers who fill the sanctuary prostrate themselves on the marble floor before the golden altar. The smell of floral offerings and burning joss sticks fills the air. High on its pedestal, the Emerald Buddha looks serenely down on the worshippers.


Wat Phra Keo was built by King Rama I in 1782, in imitation of the Royal Temple of the Grand Palace in Ayutthaya, to house the celebrated Phra Keo, or Emerald Buddha. No one knows the precise origin of this small 75-cm-high image, the most sacred in all Thailand, but some experts believe it to be of northern workmanship. The walls of the cloister that surrounds the entire temple are painted with murals telling the story of the Rumakien, the Thai version of the Rumayana epic of Indian origin.

Today, in its blue-tiled sanctuary, the Emerald Buddha sits atop a gilded altar 10 metres high. Above it is an image of a nine-tiered umbrella. On either side are crystal balls representing the sun and the moon. Three times a year, at the beginning of each new season, the King changes the Emerald Buddha’s robes: a golden diamond-studded tunic for the hot season, a gilded robe flecked with blue for the rainy season, and a robe of enamel-coated solid gold for the cool season. In the compound of Wat Phra Keo are pavilions, chedis (pointed spires), prangs (rounded spires), and mythological gods and goddesses, most of which are gilded or encrusted with bits of porcelain or glass.



The murals were painted during the reign of Rama III (1824-1850), and were restored by his two successors. In 1932, there was a more drastic restoration that inserted some Western influences into the classic Thai style. On a broad, raised marble terrace higher than the rest of the compound because it was built on the ruins of buildings destroyed by fire during the reign of Rama I are the Royal Pantheon, the library (Mondop), and a golden stupa erected by Rama IV. The Royal Pantheon contains life-size statues of the kings of the present dynasty and is open to the public only once a year, on Chakri Day, 6 April. In front of it stand many marvellous gilded statues of mythological creatures, including the half-bird, half-woman kinaree. Behind the Pantheon is the library, surrounded by monuments commemorating the sacred white elephants, symbol of royal power, that were found in the kingdom during the reigns of the first five Chakri kings.

Prasat Hin Phimai Historical Park Best Temple In Bangkok

Prasat Hin Phimai From Asia’s earliest bronze-age culture 4000 years ago to present-day Thai nationhood, Isan northeastern Thailand has played a role in virtually every key historical transition mainland Southeast Asia has seen. Of these important cultural phases perhaps none has captured the world’s imagination as much as the Angkor civilisation, which flourished in northeastern Thailand and northwestern Cambodia from the 9th to 13th centuries. Inspired by the Hindu-Buddhist architecture of central Java, where he was educated, King Jayavarman II became the first ruler of Angkor in the 9th century and was the first in mainland Southeast Asia to sponsor the building of religious monuments bearing brick or stone towers.



Over the next 350 years, this style of architecture evolved into a sophisticated set of walled and moated temple complexes extending from northwestern Cambodia across northeastern Thailand and as far west as Kanchanaburi in central Thailand. Connected to 12th-century Angkor Wat by a sacred ‘superhighway’ lined with ceremonial shrines, Prasat Hin Phimai bears key architectural milestones in the development of Angkor design and ritual. It is considered the most significant Angkor site in Thailand.



Started by King Jayavarman V in the late 10th century and finished by King Suriyavarman I in the early 11th century, the complex predates Angkor Wat by a hundred years or so, but it nevertheless shares a number of features with its more famous cousin, including the design of its prasat, the temple’s most prominent feature.

The Prasat Hin Phimai Temple original Sanskrit term, prasada, applied to cube-like religious structures, but in Thai and Khmer contexts such sanctuaries are elaborate monuments of brick, sandstone or laterite, richly carved with religious themes empowering the shrine for ritual use. Featuring a cruciform floor plan and a 28-metre, prang-topped shrine chamber, the prasat at Phimai represents a masterpiece of white sandstone sculpture, with every cornice, lintel, pediment, and pilaster carved to represent depict scenes from Hindu or Buddhist mythology.



The presence of Mahayana Buddhism at Phimai at the beginning of the 12th century was unusual since in Cambodia at this time the principal religion was still Hinduism. However it is likely that at Phimai a mixture of animism, Buddhism, and Hinduism was practiced not unlike mainstream Thai Buddhism today.

The most important relief carvings are almost always found on lintels, the assemblage of stone or brick along the tops of doorways. The southern lintel at the main shrine bears a sandstone relief of Buddha meditating beneath a seven-headed naga. Meanwhile the eastern portico is topped by a relief depicting Krishna defeating the demon Kamsa. Adjunct shrines on the grounds, made of pink sandstone, are equally impressive.

Friday, March 4, 2011

Most Popular Cave Destinations In Krabi Bangkok Thailand

Tham Lod Nua Cave and  Tham Lod Tai Cave
Tham Lod Nua located about 2 kms away from the office of Amphur Ao Luk, are ong caves under limestone hills. Blessed with fantastic stalactites and stalagmites, boats could go through these caves after water recession.
<b>Tham Lod Nua Cave</b>

Tham Lod Tai can be reached by taking the Ao Luk-Laem Sak route for about two kilometers. Then take a right turn to the Bo Tho Pier then transfer to a rental boat along the Ta Prang canel. About ten minutes after passing a mangrove swamp will be the Tham Lod Tai, which is a cave beneath a limestone hill with a
stream flowing through narrow passages. The main attractions are beatiful stalactites and stalagmites. The Tham Lod Nua is a large cavern with meandering passages longer than at the Tham Lod Tai. They are navigable only during low tide.

There are two caves :
- Tham Lod Nua : This beautiful cave winds back on itself like an elbow.
- Tham Lod Tai : is a limestone tunnel longer and narrower than one of the same name in Phang-nga Bay.
The cave mouth has stalactites and stalagmites and a boulder shaped like the quarter moon lying on its side. Visit this cave when the water is low by boarding a long tail boat at Bor Tor Pier ; the journey takes only 10 minutes.

Tham Phet Cave
Tham Phet is 3 kilometers from the intersection at Ao Luk Nua market. In front is enshrined an image of Buddha. The name of this cave "Phet" means diamond, and indeed sparking stone casts beautiful reflections on the cave wall. The best way to get there is to first contact the National Park Office at Than Bokkhorani for guide.

Tham Phi Hua To or Tham Hua Kalok Cave
Tham Phi Hua To or Tham Hua Kalok is located in Amphoe Ao Luk on Phi Hua To Mountains, which are surrounded by mangrove swamps. The cave is accessible by the same route as Tham Lod Tai with its entrance not far beyond the canel to Tham Lod Tai. From the entrance, the cave divides into 2 routes, the left one leading to a vast chamber pierced by a shaft of light, while the right routeleads to a hall believed by archaeologists to have been once a shelter for prehistoric people. Rock paintings can be seen within the cave. The paintings, 70 of them, are painted in red and black and portray people as well as animals. The cave was
named Phi Hua To or Big-headed Ghost owing to the unusually large skulls discovered there. A large pile of shells were also found in the cave.

<b>Tham Phi Hua To Cave</b>

Tham Chao Le Cave
Tham Chao Le is a beautiful cave on the west side of Laem Sak. Inside, there are stalactites and stalagmites as well as prehistoric cave paintings of people, animals and various geometrical shapes. Tham Chao Le is a cave that sits within the bay, where mountains and picturesque islands surround it. The prehistoric paintings of
men, animals, and geometric symbols, as well as, stalactite and stalagmite formations are found. It is assumed that the paintings may have been painted after those of Tham Phi Hua To. Canoeing near the cave is possible.

Tham Chao Le Cave

Sunday, February 27, 2011

Ping River and Mae Klong River in Chiang Mai Most Attractions Favourite In Thailand

Mae Taeng, a tributary of the Ping River in Chiang Mai, is a favourite choice for rafters. The Pai River, at 180 kms, is the largest in Mae Hong Son.


Mae Klong River In Lampang Province Bangkok Thailand


The Mae Klong River In Lampang province south of Chinag Mai takes visitors past the Thi Lor Jor waterfall, hot springs, and caves. The Takobi rapids add hair-raising excitement along the way. In this area is also the beautiful Thi Lor Su waterfall, and the MaeTuen sanctuary, Mae Sot.


Other good river regions include Nakhon Nayok and Prachinburi to the northeast of Bangkok, Petchaburi and Kachanburi to the west, and Pitsanalok in the central region. A number of tour companies offer a variety of expeditions, some of which last several days with overnight accommodation in tents or local villages.

Chao Phraya River The Largest River in Thailand

The Chao Phraya River is the largest river in Thailand. It is formed from the four main rivers in the northern part of Thailand, the Ping, Wang, Yom and Nan rivers and drains an area of about 178,000 sq. km. The Chao Phrnya River is the largest river of the country which drains an area of about 178,000 sq. km and holding a volume of 30,000 million cubic meters. Geographically, it is formed from four main rivers in the northern part of Thailand, viz. the Ping, Wang, Yom and Nan rivers which meet at Nakhon Sa~an. This is one of the most important rivers with about 380 km from the origin of Nakhon Sawan to the outfall at Samut Prakarn.

The benefits derived from this river are multifarious, for industries, fisheries, agriculture, transportation, domestic consumption, etc. wherein most of the communities and consumers especially in Bangkok depend largely on this river. There are also many commercial establishments which benefit from both sides of the river, such as restaurnnts, hotels, condominiums, and piers. In the contrary, those people who get the most benefit from the river have done nothing to-protect it, im-tead, they continue to discharge po1tutants into the river.

The continuing deterioration of water quality in the Chao Phraya River has become a serious environmental concern brought about by the discharge of industrial, domestic, and agricultural wastewaters into the river. In 1990, the total BOD discharged by domestic sewage and industrial waste was estimated to be 183,634 kg of
BOD dayl. It has been reported that the upper part of the river though not much affected by pollution, has shown slight indications of pollution at certain places. The water quality in the middle part of the river has begun to be polluted at a rather high rate especially at the location where water is abstracted for producing
water supply to the city of Bangkok. Apparently, the lower part has been indicated as highly polluted, with dissolved oxygen levels approaching zero.


The mighty Chao Phraya River has been exhaustively used to its full extent for hundreds of years for consumption, agriculture, fishery, industries, communication and worse than anything else, as a receiving body for liquid and solid wastes from all sorts of human activities. In recent modern times, the pollution of this
river is becoming a glaring problef1.1 due to excessive organic waste load entering the river has already crossed the "Natural Assimilative Capacity" of the river.

Kok River Most Popular Attraction In Chiang Rai Bangkok

The Kok River basin situated in the Golden Triangle delta in northern Thailand is becoming to serve as an important regional trade hub for the Yunan Province in China; Myanmar, Laos P.D.R and Thailand, as laid out in the quadrangle economic cooperation policy. As a consequence of the latter, the Kok river basin is expected to experience major economic growth in the near future which, despite its positive social impacts, should exert some environmental stress on the natural resources of the region, namely, water resources. Imminent climate change across the region as a whole may further exacerbate these adverse effects.

Although groundwater is still at present time abundant in the Kok River basin and is supposed to support the water needed to sustain the envisioned future economic growth, no thorough investigation with regard to the quantity (yield) and the future sustainability of the groundwater resources in the basin exists up-to-date. Here we investigate this issue by means of a 3D numerical groundwater flow model (MODFLOW) for the Kok river basin composed of 4 aquifer basins, namely, Upper Chiang Rai, Wiang Papao, Mae Saruay and Mae Sai aquifers, whereby the focus of the study is on the estimation of the future sustainable groundwater yield under external stresses on this aquifer due to groundwater pumping.

Based on first observational results of a recent exploratory hydrogeological investigation of the Thai Department of Groundwater Resources (DGR), the aquifer system is modeled with a top unconfined aquifer layer and three underlying confined layers, each of them separated by an aquitard. The groundwater flow model is calibrated in steadystate and transient mode using observed piezometric heads for the various aquifer layers for the year 2009. The sustainable yield of the 4 aquifers system is then computed based on a definition of the DGR, whereby sustainable yield is “the maximum total pumping rate that ensures that the average
piezometric head in each layer does not fall below a vertical distance of 20 meter from the land
surface in the next 20 years”.


 Employing these constraints for the future head variation into the model, the transient MODFLOW computations result in a total sustainable yield of 1.3, 12.36, 2.71 and 28.41 m3/Rai (1600 m2)/day for the Upper Chiang Rai, Wiang Papao, Mae Saruay and the Mae Sai aquifer, respectively. These yield differences reflect the different hydraulic conditions and the hydrogeology of the 4 aquifers. Thus, the Mae Sai aquifer is the most productive one, with a hydraulic conductivity going up to 190 m/day and a total thickness of 200 meters which results in rather high values for the transmissivity. Although the Upper Chiang Rai aquifer has horizontal hydraulic conductivities of up to 494 m/day, it is the least productive one, as its total thickness is just 44 meters. Using a zone budget module within the groundwater model, the sustainable yields have then been calculated also subdistrict- wise.


Although still preliminary, the present modeling study should give policy makers a first tool at hand for future sustainable groundwater resources management in the Kok river basin. The next step of the study will be the incorporation of the effects of regional climate change on the sustainable yield estimation, as changing future seasonal rainfall pattern and temperatures will most likely affect groundwater recharge to the regional aquifers in an adverse way, putting extra stress on the groundwater system.

Thursday, February 24, 2011

Royal Barges Museum Most Beautiful and Important Barge

The museum can be reached by boat from Tha Chang Pier near the Grand Palace. It houses several royal barges used in Royal ceremonial processions on the river. The most beautiful and important barge is the Suphannahong, the king's personal barge, which was built in 1911 in the reign of King Rama VI. It is 44.7 metres long and 3.1 metres wide, being the largest and most elaborate dugout in the world.

  
Royal Barges Museum sind ca. 12 der königlichen Barken zu besichtigen, die nur noch aus ganz bestimmten Anlässen an Feiertagen ab und an reaktiviert werden. Diese riesigen Barken sind schon sehenswert, weil sie kunstvoll geschnitzt und toll verziert sind und auch ein Stück thailändischer Kultur darstellen. Man findet das Museum am Klong Bangkok Noi am Chao Praya River.

The Royal Barge museum is perhaps a half hour attraction to see the six (if I remember correctly) barges used by Thai Royalty.

Things to know.

1) Go by boat. The land entrance is VERY hard to find and confusing.
1a) It's not a "normal" stop on the ferry route. You will have to arrange transportation.
2) Do it the same day you are seeing Wat Arun (Temple of Dawn). It's a worthy excursion but it's not necessarily worth the trip to that section by iteself.
3) Admission is like 20 baht to enter, 100 baht to take photgraphs (per person). Video cameras are not permitted under any circumstances.

Floating Market Or Amphawa Floating Market Unique Market In Bangkok

We went to the Floating Market, Samut Songkhram, Bangkok, Thailand by Taxi. We started early in the morning and it took almost an hour to reach the place. The Roads are pretty good outside Bangkok also. When we reached the floating market, we found boats are ready to take us to the market. We hired a boat for two of us and it cost 2000 Baht. The journey to the market is a good experience. I really loved the journey which allowed me to see a different picture of Thailand. It's almost a rural picture. I'm sure most of the travelers will like this.


As the floating market it is approx 2 hours drive from Bangkok city - there are other sights to see which Wandee has prepared in the form of an itinerary for visitors to this region.
Amphawa Floating Market is an afternoon floating market by the canal near Wat Amphawan Chetiyaram. On Friday, Saturday and Sunday, during 12.00 p.m. – 8.00 p.m., the Amphawa Canal is occupied by vendors who pack their boats with food and drinks.


 We chose to visit Amphawa floating market as we heard that other floating markets were very touristy (T-shirts, souvenirs, etc). Our objective was to sample the local Thai food & Amphawa floating market met our objectives. It was basically a culinary treat where you would walk, sample food, quench your thirst every so often and repeat the above steps again.

Floating Market My favorite markets encompass a wide range of cities from Paris to Bangkok, and although for the most part they are extremely different, they share the same hustle and bustle and are so beautifully unique. Paris is one of the most alluringly idyllic cities in the world, and my favorite farmer’s market holds place in a lovely little square near the third arrondisement. When in Paris, the best thing to do is to rent an apartment for the week or as long as you wish. With a kitchen at your disposal, you can rummage these local farmer’s markets and stock your temporary fridge with the most delicious baguettes, brie, vegetables, pastries, and brilliant wines. Although it’s nice to enjoy meals at lovely cafes and bistros, it’s even better to pack up a picnic with your farmer’s goods and sit at a local park, or my favorite, the Place de Vosge in the Marais.

Siam Water Park Popular Attractions In Bangkok Thailand

Siam Water Park is a 30-minute drive from Bangkok, in a suburb of Minburi. It features an extensive man-made sea with artificial surf, whirlpools, fountains and waterfalls, and towering water slides amid landscaped gardens. Other attractions include children’s playgrounds, aviaries, an open zoo, and botanical gardens. The park is open from 10:00am to 6:00 pm on weekdays and 9:00am to 7:00 pm on weekends.


Just been to Siam Park in Bangkok. After a 45 min taxi ride from Sukhumvit (about 200bht) we arrived at the park. It costs 200bht for adults and 100bht for kids for access into the park. Once in we found most of the amusement park closed due to major refurbishments going on. The water park is open though which has a few slides and a big wave pool, there are lots of things for kids to do and plenty of lifeguards stationed around. The water is clean but it does get busy at weekends and school hols. Once in the park you still have to pay for certain things like sun loungers and amusement rides but it wont break the bank (10-50 baht).

Dusit Zoo Most Popular Attractions In Bangkok Trip

The Dusit Zoo is not a bad place to visit and its very cheap to get in. Dreamworld is quite enjoyable too, and you can ride an elephant there as well. However the best day we had was at the Samphran Elephant ground, when you arrive the baby elephants are all out 'waiting' for you and you can interact, pat and feed them for as long as you want (I could have done this all day they were so cute), you can then go on a small 20 minute elephant trek, watch the crocodile show and then there is an elephant show where they re-enact some traditional battles etc and also play soccer. We had a great time here and arranged the tour through a booklet we found in our hotel. Lumpini park is quite nice too for a quiet break and you can ride the pedal boats on the lake.

Dusit Zoo Located near Vimanmek Palace in Central Bangkok, the zoo is open to the public every day
from 5:00 am to 6:00 pm. Tropical animals here include great grey kangaroos, Sumatra rhinoceros, Siamese crocodiles, guars and lesser mouse deer. A central pond features pedal boats.


Dusit Zoo with our 3 children (2yr twins + 6 month baby). It's not very easy to get to - in the end we caught the skytrain to Victory Monument and then got a taxi - but was a good way to pass an afternoon with the children. Lots of animals and they all seemed to be well cared for although the enclosures aren't very large. Only cost 30 baht entrance and the children were free. Only caveat is to avoid using the toilets if possible. They're the Thai 'hole in the ground' type and weren't very clean.

Safari Word Animal Attractions In Bangkok Thailand

Safari World This is located at Km 9, Ram Indra Road, Minburi, and covers an area of some 170 acres. It is divided into two parts. Safari Park houses a large variety of animals like zebras, deer, giraffes, birds, tigers, lions and bears in a natural habitat. Visitors can drive through in their own cars, or ride in the Safari World’s air-conditioned coaches. The Marine Park exhibits marine and rare animals. Visitors can enjoy performances by trained animals like dolphins, birds, seals, and monkeys. Restaurants and game shops are also available and a tram service is provided for touring to the park.


 Safari World Bangkok first opened in 1988 and has continued to 'improve' in the years since then. The operation is divided into a typical Zoo area, a Marine World and a Safari Park. The area covered is approximately 200 acres. This is a public limited company, listed on the Thai Stock Exchange, with profit and its shareholders being its primary considerations. This Safari World Bangkok collection is one which the majority of zoo visitors find wonderful. Those who 'know' and can 'read between the lines' can see that not all is as it seems.

There is a place for entertainment within a zoo setting so the likes of the Spy War Show and the Cowboy Stunt Show I really have no problems with. This is not so when the 'show' involves living animals. This place is not a circus, it is a zoo. As a zoo the animal related activities should be centred around Edutainment. The public need to be educated. As an organisation which uses animals to earn money they MUST give back.

The shows that we have seen, namely, Orang Utan boxing show, Sealion show, Cowboy show and the Dolphin show were well done, even though, the emcee spoke in thai instead of english, the shows were entertaining. Feeding the giraffe was also an interesting activity not to be missed. Cost is 40 baht for a bucket of food for the giraffe.


However, do not go for the Amazon river thrill ride. It cost 250 baht and it is not worth it as it is just a thrill ride, sitting in a log to view oversize amazon creatures, even my children were not thrilled. The open safari was a nice change as there is hardly any open concept of zoo around SE asia.