Monday, March 19, 2012

Tibetan Temples and Monastery Complexes

Tibetan Temples is Architecture has played a significant role in the spread of Buddhism from India to Tibet. Buddhist temples and monastery complexes in the Western Himalayas reflect the Buddhist worldview. This was revealed by the analysis of partially preserved buildings done by scientists of the Institute of Architectural Science and Architectural Design at the Graz University of Technology. The project funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) thereby also provides for the reconstruction and maintenance of these religious buildings.

The Western Himalayas are a high mountainous area in the west of the Central Tibetan Plateau. The region now covers parts of Pakistan, India, Nepal and Tibet. The landscape is characterised by rough mountain ranges in the north and the south. Despite these inhospitable conditions, this area has always been a major trade route between India and Central Asia. There was an active cultural exchange between the trading peoples of the Western Himalayas.

Import of Indian Ideas
A period of political unrest came to its close here in the 10th Century. The subsequent rise of the western Tibetan Kingdom was the starting point for the continuous strengthening of Buddhism in Tibet. During the 11th Century, especially under the Tibetan king Ye-shes-'od, scholars were sent to the Buddhist centres in India. When they returned to Tibet, they brought along important scriptures of the so-called Mahayana Buddhism. The documents were translated into Tibetan and thus created the basis for a vigorous propagation of Buddhism in Tibet. In order to represent and communicate the Buddhist teachings through architecture as well, painters and sculptors were brought from India to Tibet and were commissioned with the execution of Buddhist constructions.

The available evidences from this period are striking, when one takes into account the local conditions. "Basically, only local resources such as clay and stone could be used. Due to its scarcity, wood was only utilised for beam structures and support of columns," explains Prof. Holger Neuwirth of the Institute of Architectural Science and Architectural Design.


Despite this scarcity of resources, the architecture of monastic and temple complexes were to follow the principles of the Buddhist worldview. The murals are often painted with the colourful imagery of Buddhist mandalas. "The complex symbolic images known as the mandala represent the cosmic evolution, also described as involution or self-discovery of the individual and the psychic powers at the same time. They form the basis of the epistemologies of Indo-Tibetan, Buddhist and Indian-influenced thought," describes Prof. Neuwirth. The geometrical forms of circle and square form the setting for these complex symbolic paintings which depict stories from the Buddhist teachings.


The principle of the mandala is also the geometrical ideal for the temple and its surrounding buildings - the temple as centre, axis and hub of the world. Some buildings were constructed of several storeys. Thus, they symbolise the concept of a wandering soul which moves up from below to unite with the Absolute. In this manner a building complex followed the fundamental Buddhist idea at each level and imparted it to the outside world. Thus in a subtle way, the architecture here supported the propagation of Buddhist teachings.

Of these early Buddhist buildings in the Western Himalayas, only few are in a structurally intact state which allows liturgical use today. Moreover, in the course of centuries most of the religious buildings have been destroyed, or altered by modifications or additions, which makes it very difficult to restore them to their original form.

Tibet Train Railway Holiday Excotice

Tibet has long been a desirable travel destination for people from China and elsewhere because of its unique natural environment and cultural characteristics. However, tourism development in Tibet has been hindered by its remote and inaccessible location. Travel to Tibet has increased substantially since the opening of the Qinghai-Tibet railway in July, raising new questions about tourism development, regional economic development, environmental protection, and the preservation of the Tibetan culture. A huge gap now exists between tourism demand and the available supply in terms of facilities, service quality, tourism planning, and experience and capability in tourism management.


As competition for tourists increases, destinations are challenged to differentiate and position themselves properly to attract more visitors. Therefore, understanding how tourists make destination choices is of critical importance to destination planners, managers, and marketers. The travel decision-making process is a crucial part of the overall travel process, which comprises pre-travel, on-site, and post-travel facets. It involves decisions on whether to go and where to go, leading to actual travel to certain destinations. Choice of travel destination is of primary concern for destination managers and tourism planners and is also the subject of tourism research.

Past studies have enhanced the understanding of tourists’ decision-making behaviors, and can be used to identify and prioritize the factors influencing the destination selection process. Furthermore, the interrelations between tourists’ socio-demographic characteristics, their motivations, and their destination preferences can be measured, with practical implications for destination planning, development, and marketing.


Transportation provides the essential link between tourists’ origins and destination areas, facilitating the movements of travelers with diverse purposes. It also is an integral part of the overall travel experience (Lamb and Davidson. The actual transportation vehicle provides a context and a controlled environment for tourists’ travel between destinations and attractions (Page 2005). Although transportation can act as a main focus of the tourists’ experiences, it is usually considered a supportive element that is less important than the destination attributes within the overall travel experience.


 Limited research has concentrated on the importance of the transportation experience in tourism, especially in comparison with the destination experience, or on the role of the journey in tourists’ destination choices. Therefore, the relationships between transportation and overall tourist experience, the factors influencing transportation experiences, and the effects of the transportation experience on the overall travel experience need to be further investigated.

Although tourist destination choice has been extensively studied, few researchers have compared the destination choice preferences of pre-trip and post-trip tourists. Furthermore, in this study, a wide range of factors drawn from the literature is addressed, including socio-demographic variables, previous travel experience (first-time or repeat visitor), destination familiarity, expectations and level of satisfaction, and motivations (push and pull factors). This is the first study to focus on the train journey to Tibet from the travelers’ perspective. The recent opening of the Qinghai-Tibet railway provides the opportunity to analyze how the railway impacts tourism development in Tibet and travelers’ decisions to visit Tibet, and to examine the relative importance of the train journey in comparison with the destination.

Twin Tower Guilin Scenery Attraction

Twin Tower In Guilin Provence Beautiful Nigh Day Most Favourite China Tourism
"I have visited more than 80 countries and over a hundred cities. I have found that no city can surpass the beauty of Guilin. Guilin is really a bright pearl in China." The formation of this “pearl” started 200 million years ago when there were crustal movements and limestone sediments thrust out of the sea bottom. After years of erosion by wind and rain, hills, rocks and caves with unusual shapes were molded and referred to as “karst” topology.


Its HRI sector has potential to showcase and promote U.S. meat, wine and condiments to affluent Chinese and foreign tourists once it decides to increase focus on tourist quality rather than number. The retail sector is still in its infancy for imported foods. Meanwhile, the local livestock sector thirsts for high quality U.S. inputs such as purebred breeding pigs to boost production. As its economy grows, and infrastructure improves in line with other key Guangxi cities such as Nanning, Guilin will rise in prominence. U.S. producers need to take note.

Guilin is in the northeast part of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region with five urban districts and twelve counties. The most famous are Yangshuo and Longsheng. Guilin has subtropical weather with a monsoon season from April to July and annual rainfall of 69 inches (2006 data). The hottest months are July and August at 90° Fahrenheit during the day, and 75°F at night. Tourism is the pillar of Guilin’s economy, followed by agricultural and industrial sectors. In 2008, Guilin focused investment on auto parts manufacture, pharmaceuticals, the IT industry and food processing. Most new projects center in the Lingui New District, the future industrial center of Guilin.
Compared to Nanning, Guilin has a smaller GDP due to less urban area and population. However, when based on per capita annual disposable income, the two cities are comparable. Nanning has more retail stores per its larger population, while Guilin has more hotels for tourists. With seven universities, Guilin is Guangxi’s important educational center.

Guilin is well connected by air, road, rail and river. Tourists and business travelers can easily access Guilin quickly, safely and comfortably. Most cargo transportation relies on rail and road. Most imported goods are shipped from Guangzhou by truck.

Waterwheel Park Story Ming Dynasty

Waterwheel Park, the unique-shaped Water Wheel has a long history and the first reference to it appeared in the Ming Dynasty. Lanzhou is the only city through which the Yellow River flows; there are thus many irrigation machines in the city. The waterwheel invented by Duan Xu in the Ming Dynasty (1368 - 1644) is the oldest one. Duan Xu learnt from the irrigation machines in Yunnan Province and invented a distinctive style with the appearance of chariot wheels and a diameter ranging from 10 to 20 meters (32.8 to 65.6 feet). Until 1952, about 252 waterwheels stood along the river in Lanzhou, and at that time, the city was reputed to be the "City of Waterwheels."



It is an ancient irrigation device that uses flowing or falling water to create power by means of a set of paddles mounted around a wheel. The force of the water moved the paddles, and the consequent rotation of the wheel is transmitted to machinery via the shaft of the wheel.


In the garden, two huge waterwheels with striking appearances stand uprightly on the south bank of the Yellow River. They are modeled on the antique waterwheel, having quadrate buckets and a diameter of 16.5 meters (54.1 feet). In high water periods, they are driv en by flowing water from the river; in low water periods, they are driven by water gathered by cofferdam. Owing to the two waterwheels and an advantaged position, the Waterwheel Teahouse attracts a lot of tourists.

Sunday, March 18, 2012

White Pagoda Hill Park

The White Pagoda Hill Park occupies an area of more than 8,000 square meters. There are three clusters of ancient buildings standing on top of the mountain. The legendary ‘Three Guarding Treasures of the mountain” are said to be the elephant skinned drum, the bronze bell and the Chinese redbud tree which unfortunately has already extinct.


The White Pagoda Hill Park is seven-level octagonal pagoda is 17 meters tall. Below the pagoda there are bronze bell and elephant skip drum. The structures on the mountain are divided into three different platforms on higher than the other. If you climb onto the top of the hill you will find yourself above the tree line, and unfurling below you a marvelous view of the city of Lanzhou and the mighty waters of Yellow River rolling on incessantly.


The tale of the township goes like this: tracing back to the Ming Dynasty, General Xuda and General Fengsheng were ordered to attack the Wangbaobao City. They commanded the solders to disguise themselves as the opponents and arm themselves with tambourin and large drums. The solders hence entered the Wangbaobao City without notice; and in collaboration with armies surrounding the city, they took over the city without much resistance. The drums were given the name “the Peaceful Drum” to honor the relatively bloodless victory of this battle and hereafter drumming became the main performance of the Lanzhou Altar Fire.

Yellow River Cruise Recreaction In Chinese

The Yellow River basin has been part of China virtually since the inception of the Chinese nation. Designated as “the cradle of Chinese Civilization,” the basin has played a key role not only in the country’s economic development but also in the historic and cultural identity of the Chinese people. Perhaps, ironically, the Yellow River is also known as “China’s Sorrow,” because the soils which have fostered human development are also associated with frequent, sometimes catastrophic, floods. The devastation brought by these floods, often at scales unimaginable in the West, makes it easy to understand why successive Chinese administrations from the legendary Xia Dynasty (ca. 2000 B.C.) through the 20th century made flood control the number one priority of Yellow River management.


While the possibility of flooding is ever present and remains a key issue in basin management, major achievements have been made in flood control since the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949. As a result of this success and the rapid economic and social changes which have taken place over the past few decades, new issues such as water scarcity, overuse of resources and environmental degradation arenow rising to the top position of the water management agenda. In essence, a transition in river management is now taking place in which focus is shifting from prevention of the river doing harm to people to preventing people from doing harm to the river.


Significant institutional, policy and legal reforms are required to successfully bring about such a fundamental transition in a river management system that has evolved over two millennia. This report has been produced as a background to assist researchers and policy makers in informing the debate surrounding that reform. The report is divided into three primary sections. The first discusses the background to the Yellow River basin and its management including the basic geography of the basin, the role of the basin in Chinese history, and the historic development of basin water resources management and water resources.

The second discusses the key critical issues now being faced by basin residents and managers, including water scarcity, flood control, and land and other environmental degradation. The report concludes with some reflections on promising areas for future researchand analysis, including intersectoral allocation, water saving, pollution abatement, data issues and institutional gaps.

Yellow River’s geography commence with a recitation of facts. For example, the Yellow River begins in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau of Qinghai province from whence it flows across 8 other provinces and autonomous regions before emptying into the Yellow Sea north of the Shandong peninsula. With a length of over 5,400 km, the Yellow River is the second longest in China and the 10th longest in the world and drains an area larger than France.The basin contains approximately 9 percent of China’s population and 17 percent of its agricultural area. While such static figures may be of passing interest, it is a deeper understanding of variation in the Yellow River basin’s physical geography that is necessary if one wishes to understand the issues which both the Chinese government and basin residents face in their daily efforts to use, manage and protect the river. To accomplish this formidable task, the river is often divided into its three main reaches for analysis.

Yellow River Xia Dynasty of Chinese

The Yellow River basin has been part of China virtually since the inception of the Chinese nation. Designated as “the cradle of Chinese Civilization,” the basin has played a key role not only in the country’s economic development but also in the historic and cultural identity of the Chinese people. Perhaps, ironically, the Yellow River is also known as “China’s Sorrow,” because the soils which have fostered human development are also associated with frequent, sometimes catastrophic, floods. The devastation brought by these floods, often at scales unimaginable in the West, makes it easy to understand why successive Chinese administrations from the legendary Xia Dynasty (ca. 2000 B.C.) through the 20th century made flood control the number one priority of Yellow River management.


While the possibility of flooding is ever present and remains a key issue in basin management, major achievements have been made in flood control since the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949. As a result of this success and the rapid economic and social changes which have taken place over the past few decades, new issues such as water scarcity, overuse of resources and environmental degradation are now rising to the top position of the water management agenda. In essence, a transition in river management is now taking place in which focus is shifting from prevention of the river doing harm to people to preventing people from doing harm to the river.

Significant institutional, policy and legal reforms are required to successfully bring about such a fundamental transition in a river management system that has evolved over two millennia. This report has been produced as a background to assist researchers and policy makers in informing the debate surrounding that reform. The report is divided into three primary sections. The first discusses the background to the Yellow River basin and its management including the basic geography of the basin, the role of the basin in Chinese history, and the historic development of basin water resources management and water resources.



The second discusses the key critical issues now being faced by basin residents and managers, including water scarcity, flood control, and land and other environmental degradation. The report concludes with some reflections on promising areas for future research and analysis, including intersectoral allocation, water saving, pollution abatement, data issues and institutional gaps.

Physical Geography
Most descriptions of the Yellow River’s geography commence with a recitation of facts. For example, the Yellow River begins in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau of Qinghai province from whence it flows across 8 other provinces and autonomous regions before emptying into the Yellow Sea north of the Shandong peninsula. With a length of over 5,400 km, the Yellow River is the second longest in China and the 10th longest in the world and drains an area larger than France.

The basin contains approximately 9 percent of China’s population and 17 percent of its agricultural area. While such static figures may be of passing interest, it is a deeper understanding of variation in the Yellow River basin’s physical geography that is  necessary if one wishes to understand the issues which both the Chinese government and basin residents face in their daily efforts to use, manage and protect the river. To accomplish this formidable task, the river is often divided into its three main reaches for analysis.