In the present unit, the concept, principles and aims of Dachigam Wildlife Sanctuary conservation have been explained. The need for rational use, restoration, integration and allocation of resources has been stressed. The importance and advantages of conservation are also discussed. Dachigam Wildlife Sanctuary conservation with reference to India is discussed in detail. The main factors which cause wildlife eqtinction are hunting, habitat destruction and predator control. Dachigam Wildlife Sanctuary has economic, medicinal and recreational value.
They also maintain the ecosystem stability. So there is a strong need for wildlife conservation. To conserve wildlife many acts have been passed and reserve areas created. In India, there are about 412 wildlife sanctuaries; 80 national parks and reserves to conserve wildlife. 'Project Tiger', an operation to conserve the Indian tiger is also discussed in this unit.
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The rapid decline in the quantity and quality of natural resources has led to a concern for their management and conservation. Natural resources are raw materials obtained or derived from nature. They are classified into renewable and non-renewable resources. Renewable resources are replaced from time to time by natural processes, like multiplication, recycling, etc. They are, in this sense, inexhaustible. Forests, pastures, wildlife and aquatic life come in this category. However, it is necessary to properly plan and manage their use. Non-renewable resources such as minerals, metals, soil, coal, oil deposits, etc., are available in limited amdunts and in no manner can be rebuilt or increased.
If man expects to have a future.on the earth, he must use the resources in the most I prudent manner possible. Dachigam Wildlife Sanctuary Conservation does not mean hoaiding. It means the wise management of resources to provide a continuous supply for a long time into the future. This implies continuous renewal of a resource and recovering, recycling or reusing the products. Dachigam Wildlife Sanctuary Conservation of a natural area means its maintenance in a natural state for the purpose of enjoyment or study in order to understand and appreciate the complexities of ecological laws.
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Dachigam Wildlife Sanctuary Conservation is a broad concept which involves not only the scientific but ethical, moral, economic and political aspects as well. Dachigam Wildlife Sanctuary Conservation has been variously defined. Conservation for a petroleum engineer is largely minimising of waste from incomplete extrachon and for a forester it may be sustained yield of products. In all cases, conservation deals with judicious development and manner of use of natural resources of all kinds. A generalised definition of conservation is "the maximisation over time of the net benefits in goods and services from resources". Although it is technologically based, conservation cannot escape socially determined values.
Dachigam Wildlife Sanctuary Conservation may also be defined as the achievement of the highest sustainable quality of living for mankind by the rational utilisation of the environment, protection of nature to enrich the life of man and the control or elimination of environmental pollution in its many manifestations. Conservation advocates practices that yill perpetuate the resources of the earth on which man depends or in whose continued existence he takes an interest. Conservation derives its tenets from a knowledge of ecology, the science concerned with interrelationship between living things and their environment.
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Dachigam Wildlife Sanctuary Conservation is achieved through measures adopted in favour of a natural resource in order to increase its longevity and improve usage patterns. Some such measure are as follows:
- Rational use of the resouyes is one of the concepts in conservation of natural resources in an essentially undisturbed condition because they are of scientific interest, have aesthetic appeal or have recreational value. Preservation also serves an ecological purpose by maintaining the function of the total environment, for example, protection of forests assures a sustained yield of water into urban reservoirs, and protection of estuaries perpetuates ocean fishery. But rational use is not just preservation. It also implies the direct use of resources for their commodity or recreational value. Thus, harvesting of forest crops, livestock grazing of gr~sslandc, atching fish and hunting wild animals can be considered a legitimate part of the rational use of naiural resources, if they are carried out in such a way that the resource is perpetuated and not endangered.
- Concept of sustained yield is involved in these activities. This means cropping the annual surplus of individuals so as not to endanger the breeding stock of game animals or fish. Similarly, tree cutting or grazing of grass should remove only the annual increment and no more.
- Restoration is another important aspect of conservation. It is a widely familiar conservation measure which is essentially the correction of past careless activities that have impaired the productivity of the resource base. Deforested areas and mined and barren lands can be revegetated with some effort. Depleted animal and plant populations can recover if they are accorded protection.
This measure is familiar in modem soil and water conservation practices applied to agricultural land. Restoration is possible, however, only as long as species are protected and genetic diversity of life is maintained. When species become extinct, the restoration of past conditions become impossible.
Rotection of natural resources from commercial exploitation to prolong their use for recreation, watershed protection, and scientific study. This is the concept underlying the establishment and protection of parks and reserves of many kinds.
- Reutillisation is the reuse of waste materials, as in the use of industrial water after it has been purified and cooled. The same process becomes recycling if the waste material requires minor treatment before it canbe reused, as in the use of scrap iron in steel manufacture.
- Substitution, an important conservation measure, has two aspects: (i) the use of a common resource instead of a rare one when it is for the same purpose, (ii) the use of a renewable rather than a non-renewable resource when conditions permit. Allocation concerns the strategy uf use--the best use of a resource. For many resources and their products, the market price decides as to the use a resource is put, but under certain instances, general welfare may dictate otherwise. The allocation of resources may be controlled by government through the use of quotas, rationing and outright permits.
- Allocation concerns the strategy uf use--the best use of a resource. For many resources and their products, the market price decides as to the use a resource is put, but under certain instances, general welfare may dictate otherwise. The allocation of resources may be controlled by government through the use of quotas, rationing and outright permits.
- Integration in resource management is a conservation measure because it maximises over a period of time, the sum of goods and services that can be had from a resource, or a resource complex such as a river valley. This is preferable to maximise certain benefits from a single resource at the expense of other benefits or other resources. Integration is a central objective of planning.